The Cold War Begins. After WWII

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1 The Cold War Begins After WWII After WWII the US and the USSR emerged as the world s two. Although allies during WWII distrust between the communist USSR and the democratic US led to the. Cold War tension and hostility between the US and the USSR after 1945 because of political and economic differences, with no armed battle between the superpowers. After WWII, the US western European countries, but the occupied eastern European countries and forced them to accept communism and become Soviet. Satellite a smaller country dominated by a nearby power. Germany was into four zones with Britain, France and the US controlling the west, while the USSR controlled the east. In the Soviet sector was, which was also divided into four sections. Britain, France and the US united their German sections to create West Germany, while the USSR created East Germany, another satellite nation. Due to the growing tension, Winston Churchill said that a figurative had now divided Europe. For protection against further Soviet aggression the US and western European countries formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( ), a defensive alliance. The USSR formed an alliance with its satellites called the. nations such as India and Yugoslavia did not take sides during the Cold War, but instead focused on making progress, often accepting aid from both sides. Cold War Clashes 1

2 Truman Doctrine The United States Cold War strategy was, or limiting communism to areas already under Soviet control. In 1947 President Truman launched the, which was a program to economically and militarily help nations communism anywhere in the world. and received aid and successfully resisted Stalin s control. Marshall Plan To democratic governments and lessen the appeal of communism the US provided a massive economic aid package called the. Billions of US dollars helped western European nations recover from WWII. Berlin Airlift was the focus of Cold War tension. While the US worked to the West German economy, Stalin wanted to keep Germany weak and divided. In 1948 Stalin closed all leading to West Berlin in hopes of forcing out the western powers. In response the western powers mounted a successful. For almost a year food and supplies were flown into West Berlin, until Stalin gave up and ended the blockade. Berlin Wall Arms Race During the 1950s communist East Germany was experiencing a of doctors, engineers, teachers, and lawyers across the West German border. To prevent escapes, in 1961 communist East Germany built a around West Berlin. Those who tried to escape were. The Berlin Wall became a of the Cold War. 2

3 The USSR detonated its first bomb in The US and the USSR also developed intercontinental ballistic missiles ( ), which were long-range rockets carrying warheads. Both superpowers spent great amounts of money on weapons, and many feared world destruction. However, with ICBMs came the possibility of MAD, or. This theory stated that a nuclear war between the superpowers would result in the total annihilation of both nations, and would therefore actually result in a tense, but stable. Space Race The superpowers also in space. In 1957 the USSR launched the satellite into Earth s orbit. US Congress soon created to improve space technology, and the race was on. Both the USSR and the US used satellites as. In 1961 the USSR sent the first into space, but in 1969 the US was the first nation to put a man on the. 3

4 Cuban Missile Crisis In 1959 overthrew the oppressive Cuban government and made Cuba a communist dictatorship. Castro became allies with the Soviet Union, and friends with Khrushchev. Seeking to overthrow Castro, President Kennedy funded a secret invasion of Cuban exiles at the in Castro repelled disorganized invasion, so the US imposed a trade embargo on Cuba. the In retaliation Castro allowed the USSR to build nuclear missile bases in Cuba, just 90 miles from Florida. Kennedy responded with a naval of Cuba and demanded Khrushchev remove the missiles. On the brink of nuclear war, Khrushchev backed down and removed the missiles, but he won a secret pledge from Kennedy not to Cuba, and also to US missiles from Turkey. US Proxy Wars Due to the belief in the theory the US engaged in wars in Korea, Vietnam, and Afghanistan during the Cold War. Domino Theory if one country falls to communism its neighbors will soon follow, eventually reaching the US. Proxy War when two powers use a third party as a substitute for fighting each other directly. The Korean War After defeating Japan in WWII the US and the USSR Korea into a communist North and a capitalist South. In 1950 the North invaded the South seeking to spread communism. The pledged to defend South Korea and sent ground, air, and naval forces. After narrowly avoiding defeat, forces repelled the North. To help the North Koreans the Communist intervened and inflicted heavy losses on UN forces, driving them back out of North Korea. A stalemate led to peace talks, and by 1953 an was signed that divided the Koreas again. 4

5 The Vietnam War The colony of Vietnam was taken by Japan during WWII. After the war the French hoped to regain the colony but faced stiff resistance from communist leader and his Viet Cong guerilla fighters. The Viet Cong finally defeated the French in 1954 at the battle of. The peace settlement split Vietnam into a communist North and a capitalist South. Civil war soon broke out, so the joined forces with South Vietnam to stop the spread of communism. By 1969 a half US troops were serving in Vietnam, but even with this help the South Vietnamese could not defeat the tough Vietcong, who received aid and supplies from the Communist. Growing antiwar sentiment in the US forced President Nixon to withdraw American forces. With the US gone, in 1975, capital of South Vietnam, fell to the North Vietnamese communists, who soon reunited the country under their total control. and the Easing Tensions A terrible Soviet forced Khrushchev to step down in 1964, and Leonid took control. Seeking to improve living conditions within the USSR, Brezhnev cut military spending and began a policy of with the US that lasted until Détente period in the 1970s during which there was an easing of tensions between the US and the USSR. With détente President Nixon and Brezhnev promoted cultural exchange,, and signed the (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty) agreement in 1972, which slowed the arms race by limiting the number of nuclear weapons each superpower possessed. 5

6 International Relations Worksheet: Depression, WW2 and the Cold War Write the word or phrase next to its definition Cold War Mao Zedong Space Race Normandy Hiroshima Polish Corridor Stalin Maginot Hitler Mussolini Roosevelt Hirahito Soviet Union United Nations Churchill 1. The leader of the Nazi party and the dictator of Germany during World War II. 2. The Prime Minister of Great Britain during World War II. 3. The President of the United States during World War II. 4. The dictator of Italy during World War II. 5. The dictator of communist Russia during World War II, killed millions in purges. 6. Fortified line between France and Germany. 7. The site of Operation Overlord and the D-Day invasion. 8. The emperor of Japan during World War II. 9. Place where the first atomic bomb ever used on an enemy was dropped. 10. The area, which separated the two parts of Germany as a buffer zone. 11. Competition between the USSR and the US to be the first to put a man on the moon. 12. Conflict between the US and Russia which was characterized by military build up. 13. Organization which was formed after WWII to reduce conflict between countries. Define the following words or terms 14. Battle of Britain 15. Operation Overlord 16. Appeasement 17. Great Depression Short Answer 18. What were the contributing causes of the great depression? 19. What was the Final Solution and why did Germany do it? 20. What events led to the surrender of Germany and Japan? 21. Why did the US become involved in conflicts like Korea and Vietnam? 22. What challenges does the world faces in the 21 st century? 6

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