Chapter 17: Restructuring the Postwar World: 1945-Present I. Cold War: Superpowers Face Off (Section 1) a. Allies Become Enemies i.

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1 Chapter 17: Restructuring the Postwar World: 1945-Present I. Cold War: Superpowers Face Off (Section 1) a. Allies Become Enemies i. Yalta Conference: A Postwar Plan 1. In February 1945, British, American and Soviet leaders meet at Yalta 2. They agree to divide Germany into zones of occupation when WWII ends 3. Soviet leader Stalin agrees to allow free elections in Eastern Europe ii. Creation of the United Nations 1. June, 1945, 50 nations for United Nations international organization 2. All members represented in General Assembly; 11 on Security Council 3. Five permanent members have Security Council veto power iii. Differing U.S. and Soviet Goals 1. U.S. and Soviets split sharply after WWII ends 2. U.S. is the world s richest and most powerful country after WWII 3. Soviets recovering from high war casualties, many destroyed cities b. Eastern Europe s Iron Curtain i. Soviets Build a Buffer 1. Soviets control Eastern European countries after World War II 2. Stalin installs Communist governments in several countries 3. Truman urges free elections; Stalin refuses 4. In 1946, Stalin says capitalism and communism cannot co-exist ii. An Iron Curtain Divides East and West 1. Germany is divided; East Germany is Communist, West Germany is Democratic 2. Iron Curtain Winston Churchill s name for the division of Europe c. United States Tries to Contain Soviets i. Containment 1. Containment U.S. plan to stop the spread of communism ii. The Truman Doctrine 1. Truman Doctrine U.S. supports countries that reject communism 2. Congress approves Truman s request for aid to Greece and Turkey iii. The Marshall Plan 1. Much of Western Europe lay in ruins after World War II 2. Marshal Plan U.S. program of assisting Western European countries 3. Congress approves plan after Communist takeover of Czechoslovakia iv. The Berlin Airlift 1. In 1948, U.S., Britain and France withdraw forces from West Germany 2. Their former occupation zones form one country 3. Soviets oppose this, stop land and water traffic into West Berlin 4. U.S. and Britain fly in supplies for 11 months until the blockade ends d. The Cold War Divides the World i. The Cold War 1. Cold War struggle of the U.S. and Soviet Union using means short of war

2 ii. Superpowers Form Rival Alliances 1. In 1949, U.S., Canada, Western European countries form NATO 2. NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization, defensive military alliance 3. In 1955, Soviets and Eastern European nations sign the Warsaw Pact alliance 4. In 1961, Soviets build Berlin Wall to separate East and West Berlin iii. The Threat of Nuclear War 1. Soviet Union explodes its first atomic bomb in U.S. and Soviet Union both develop more powerful hydrogen bomb 3. Brinkmanship policy of willingness to go to the edge of war 4. Increasing tensions lead to military buildup by U.S. and Soviet iv. The Cold War in the Skies 1. In 1957, Soviets launch Sputnik, first unmanned satellite 2. In 1960, Soviets shoot down American spy plane, increasing tensions II. Communists Take Power in China (Chapter 17, Section 2) a. Communists vs. Nationalists i. World War II in China 1. Mao Zedong leads Chinese Communists against Japanese invaders 2. Jiang Jieshi leader of Chinese Nationalists in World War II 3. Nationalist and Communist Chinese resume civil war after WWII ends ii. Civil War Resumes 1. Economic problems cause Nationalist soldiers to desert to Communists 2. Mao s troops take control of China s major cities 3. In 1949, People s Republic of China is created; Nationalists move to Taiwan b. The Two Chinas Affect the Cold War i. The Superpowers React 1. U.S. supports Nationalist state in Taiwan, called the Republic of China 2. Soviets and China agree to help each other in event of attack 3. U.S. tries to stop Soviet expansion and the spread of communism in Asia ii. China Expands under the Communists 1. China takes control of Tibet and southern Mongolia 2. India welcomes Tibetan refugees fleeing revolt against Chinese 3. China and India clash over border; fighting stops but tensions remain c. The Communists Transform China i. Communists Claim a New Mandate of Heaven 1. Chinese Communists organize a national government and a Communist Party ii. Mao s Brand of Marxist Socialism 1. Mao takes property from landowners and divides it among peasants 2. Government seizes private companies and plans production increase iii. The Great Leap Forward 1. Communes large collective farms often supporting over 25,000 people 2. Program is ended after inefficiency leads to crops failures and famines

3 iv. New Policies and Mao s Response 1. China and Soviet Union clash over leadership of Communist movement 2. Strict socialist ideas are moderated, Mao reduces his role in government 3. Red Guards militia units formed to enforce strict communism in China v. The Cultural Revolution 1. Cultural Revolution movement to build society of peasants and workers 2. Red Guards close schools and execute or imprison many intellectuals 3. In 1968, Chinese army imprisons, executes or exiles most Red Guards III. Wars in Korea and Vietnam (Chapter 17, Section 3) a. War in Korea i. A Divided Land th parallel line dividing Korea into North Korea and South Korea ii. Standoff at the 38 th Parallel 1. In 1950, North Koreans invade South Korea with Soviet support 2. South Korea requests UN assistance; 15 nations send troops 3. Douglas MacArthur leads UN forces against North Koreans 4. North Koreans control most of peninsula when MacArthur attacks 5. Half of the North s army surrenders, the rest retreat iii. The Fighting Continues 1. UN troops push North Koreans almost to Chinese border 2. Chinese send 300,000 troops against UN forces and capture Seoul 3. MacArthur calls for nuclear attack and is removed from command 4. In 1953, a cease fire is signed and borders are established at the 38 th parallel iv. Aftermath of the War 1. North Korea builds collective farms, heavy industry and nuclear weapons 2. South Korea establishes democracy and a growing economy with U.S. aid b. War Breaks Out in Vietnam i. The Road to War 1. Ho Chi Minh Vietnamese nationalist, later becomes Communist leader ii. The Fighting Begins 1. In 1954, the French surrender to Vietnamese after a major defeat 2. Domino Theory U.S. theory of Communist expansion in Southeast Asia iii. Vietnam A Divided Country 1. International peace conference agrees on a divided Vietnam 2. Ngo Dinh Diem leads anti-communist government in South Vietnam 3. Vietcong South Vietnamese Communist guerillas fighting against Diem c. The United States Gets Involved i. U.S. Troops Enter the Fight 1. In 1964, U.S. sends troops to fight Viet Cong, North Vietnamese 2. U.S. fights guerilla war defending increasingly unpopular government 3. Vietcong gains support from Ho Chi Minh, China and the Soviet Union

4 ii. The United States Withdraws 1. War grows unpopular in U.S.; in 1969, Nixon starts withdrawing troops 2. Vietnamization Nixon s plan to withdraw U.S. from war gradually 3. Last U.S. troops leave in 1973; South Vietnam is overrun in 1975 d. Postwar Southeast Asia i. Cambodia in Turmoil 1. Khmer Rouge Communist rebels who take control of Cambodia in They slaughter 2 million people and are finally overthrown by Vietnamese invaders 3. In 1993, Cambodia adopts democracy and holds elections with UN help ii. Vietnam After the War 1. Saigon is renamed Ho Chi Minh City; Vietnam is united as a Communist nation 2. About 1.5 million people flee Vietnam, some settling in the U.S. and Canada 3. In 1995, the United States normalizes relations with Vietnam IV. The Cold War Divides the World (Chapter 17, Section 4) a. Fighting for the Third World i. More Than One World 1. Third World developing nations; often newly independent and nonaligned ii. Cold War Strategies 1. U.S., Soviet Union and China compete for influence over Third World 2. Back revolutions and give economic, military and technical aid iii. Association of Nonaligned Nations 1. Many countries, like India, want to avoid involvement in the Cold War 2. In 1955, Indonesia hosts Asian and African leaders who want neutrality 3. Nonaligned nations independent countries not involved in the Cold War b. Confrontations in Latin America i. Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution 1. Fidel Castro leads revolt in Cuba against dictator supported by the U.S. 2. By 1959, Castro in power has nationalized the economy and takes U.S. property 3. In 1961, Castro defeats U.S.-trained Cuban exiles at the Bay of Pigs ii. Nuclear Face-off: the Cuban Missile Crisis 1. In 1962, U.S. demands removal of Soviet missiles in Cuba 2. Soviets withdraw missiles and the U.S. promises not to invade Cuba 3. Cuban economy is left dependent on Soviet support iii. Civil War in Nicaragua 1. Anastasio Somoza Nicaraguan dictator supported by the U.S. 2. Daniel Ortega leads Sandinista rebels who take power in Nicaragua 3. U.S. and Soviet Union both initially support Sandinistas 4. Sandanistas aid Communist rebels in El Salvador 5. U.S. helps anti-communist Contras in Nicaragua to assist El Salvador 6. In 1990, Nicaragua holds first free elections; Sandanistas lose

5 iv. Strikes and Demonstrations 1. Civil disobedience takes an economic toll on the British 2. Thousands of striking Indians are arrested with jails becoming severely overcrowded c. Confrontations in the Middle East i. Religious and Secular Values Clash in Iran 1. Shah Reza Pahlavi embraces Western governments and oil companies 2. Iranian nationalists overthrow the shah and seize British oil company 3. U.S. restores shah to power, fearing Soviet encroachment ii. The United States Supports Secular Rule 1. Shah Reza Pahlavi westernizes Iran with U.S. support 2. Ayatollah Ruholia Khomeini Iranian Muslim leader; lives in exile 3. In 1978, Khomeini sparks riots in Iran; shah flees iii. Khomeini s Anti-U.S. Policies 1. Islamic revolutionaries hold American hostages in Tehran ( ) 2. Muslim radicals take control in Iran, increasing tensions with Iraq 3. Iran and Iraq fight an 8-year war; U.S. aids both sides, the Soviets help Iraq iv. The Superpowers Face Off in Afghanistan 1. Soviets invade Afghanistan and help Communist government against rebels 2. Muslim rebels fight guerilla war against the Soviets with U.S. weapons 3. U.S. stops grain shipments to Soviet Union; Soviets withdraw (1989) V. The Cold War Thaws (Chapter 17, Section 5) a. Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe and China i. Destalinization and Rumblings of Protest 1. Nikita Khrushchev leader of Soviet Union after Stalin dies (1953) 2. Khrushchev condemns Stalin; Soviets and West can peacefully compete 3. Citizens of Soviet-controlled governments begin protesting communism 4. Khrushchev sends Soviet military to put down Hungarian protesters ii. The Revolt in Czechoslovakia 1. Leonid Brezhnev Soviet leader after Khrushchev represses dissent 2. In 1968, Warsaw Pact troops block reforms in Czechoslovakia iii. The Soviet-Chinese Split 1. In 1950, Mao and Stalin sign a friendship treaty, but tensions grow 2. Chinese and Soviets each want to lead world communism 3. Khrushchev ends economic aid and refuses to share nuclear secrets 4. Soviets and Chinese fight small skirmishes across the border b. From Brinkmanship to Détente i. Brinkmanship Breaks Down 1. Brinkmanship causes repeated crises; nuclear war a constant threat 2. John F. Kennedy U.S. president during the Cuban Missile crisis 3. Lyndon Johnson president who increases U.S. involvement in Vietnam

6 ii. The United States Turns to Détente 1. Vietnam-era turmoil fuels desire for less confrontational policy 2. Détente policy of reducing Cold War tensions to avoid conflict 3. Richard M. Nixon U.S. president who launches détente 4. Détente grows out of philosophy known as realpolitik 5. realistic politics recognizes need to be practical and flexible iii. Nixon Visits Communist Powers 1. Nixon visits Communist China and Soviet Union, signs SALT I Treaty 2. SALT Strategic Arms Limitation Talks limit nuclear weapons c. The Collapse of Détente i. Policy Changes 1. Nixon and Gerald Ford improve relations with the Soviets and China 2. Jimmy Carter has concerns about Soviet policies but signs SALT II 3. Congress will not ratify SALT II due to Soviet invasion of Afghanistan ii. Reagan Takes an Anti-Communist Stance 1. Ronald Reagan anti-communist U.S. president takes office in Increases military spending, proposes a missile defense program 3. In 1985, new Soviet leadership allows easing of Cold War tension

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