World History Chapter 23 Page Reading Outline

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1 World History Chapter 23 Page Reading Outline The Cold War Era: Iron Curtain: a phrased coined by Winston Churchill at the end of World War I when her foresaw of the impending danger Russia would pose on the world with its communist ideology and dictatorial rule of Lenin and then Stalin Cold War: The four decades of apprehension, hostility and competition between (U.S.S.R) and the United States (U.S.) I. Post war Confrontation A. Background of the Cold War Industrialized nations,, and Communist world of,, and China Developing countries of,, and 1. A Heritage of Mistrust Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 tension increased between the and the West Allies supported forces with supplies and U. S. withheld diplomatic recognition of the Soviet Union until. After WWII Soviet Union aggression ended the alliance. 2. Communist Motives a. Fear of the West b. Ideology c. Desire for power B. Soviet Expansionist Policies Soviet Union used the Eastern European countries as between the Soviet Union and the. The Eastern European countries also supplied for rebuilding the Soviet economy. Allies allowed (recognized) soviet gain in Eastern Europe with the understanding that would ultimately be held there. List the Countries that fell under Soviet control and when: Marshall Tito: C. American Containment Policies 1. American Ideals U.S. was the most powerful nation in the World and without equal after WWII. American began a defense buildup. America s goal:

2 2. Containment Who implemented a foreign policy designed to contain the spread of communism? Which two countries did the Soviets supported Communist guerrillas? Truman Doctrine: George Kennan: Containment meant the use of,, and to curtail the communist advancement. 3. The Marshall Plan George Marshall: When European Recovery Act was established? What was the short and long term purpose of the Marshall Plan? D. U.S. /Soviet Confrontation 1. Germany Which city in Germany was divided amongst the allies and the Soviet Union? Explained what happened in 1948 that tested the policy of containment: 2. NATO :_ What is the purpose of NATO and list it original members: In response to the formation of NATO what did the Soviet Union established? 3. Arms Race What did the Soviet Union do in 1949? What did Truman commission to be built in 1950? What did both the U.S. and the Soviet Union want? II. Spread of Communism Limited wars: A. The Fall of China Name the two sides of the civil war in China and their leader: How much did the U. S spend to support the Nationalist? Where did the Nationalist armies establish a government? How long did the U.S. recongingze as the real China?

3 B. The Korean War ( ) 1. Invasion and Reaction When and with whose support did North Korea invade South Korea? Instead of the U.S. congress, who did President Truman appealed to for the necessity of military action against North Korea? 2. Success and Defeat General Douglas MacArthur 38 th Parallel: As the UN and its forces was about to achieve complete victory, what country stepped in to change the course of the conflict? What was MacArthur s plan? What was General Omar Bradley s reason to counter that plan? What did President Truman do on April 11, Stalemate and Exhaustion When was the armistice signed? What was established as a result of the agreement? Failure of the Free World to military victory encouraged aggression. C. The Vietnam War ( ) 1. The French Phase The French wanted to recover its Asian Colony taken by the Japanese prior to WWI. At which battle did the Vietnamese defeat the French, making them no long willing to retake their former colony? At what conference were the Communist win a victory when Vietnam was divided? What was the line of demarcation? Ho Chi Minh: Explain the Domino Theory: 2. The American phase What did North Vietnam do in 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: Tet (New Year) Offensive: The Vietnam War was becoming very unpopular with the American people leaving which president to not seek reelection and to start peace talks? President Nixon initiated a program he called vietnamization, what does that entail? What happened once the war ended in 1973?

4 D. Communist in Africa and Latin America 1. Africa: 2. Latin America Yankee imperialism Fidel Castro seized control of Cuba in what year? Bay of Pig: President Reagan list some of the things he did to rid the America s of communist expansion? III. Showdown Between the Superpowers A. Coexistence and Tension Peaceful Coexistence was the plan of which American President? Sputnik: Threatened by Russia s scientific advancement which President vowed to put a man on the moon by the end of the 1960? Explain the U-2 incident: When and why was the Berlin wall built? Explain the Cuban Missile Crisis: B. Thaws in the Cold War Which president was the first to visit mainland China? Secretary of State Henry Kissinger work towards what policy and with whom? Explain the strategic Arm Limitation talks (SALT): When and what did the Soviet Union do to demonstrated that it was not really pulling back on its arms production? President Ronald Reagan: Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Why did he call the Soviet Union the evil empire?

5 C. Collapse of the Soviet 1. Reasons for Decline List the factors that led to the decline of the Soviet Union in the 1980s 2. Perestroika and Glasnost Mikhail Gorbachev: Define perestroika: Define Glasnost: What are some goals of Mikhail Gorbachev: 3. Unrest in Eastern Europe Eastern European countries wanted their freedom from Soviet domination Poland would elect its first non-communist prime minister, what is his name? Hungary and Czechoslovakia both did what? How and when did the wall separating East and West Berlin fall? 4. Unrest in the USSR What internal challenges threatened to tear the country of USSR apart? Who would be the first freely elected President in Russia? What happened in December 1991? What was established with the leadership of Russia? IV. Aftermath of the Cold War A. The Former Soviet Union Of the New Republics formed after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and Russia are the most prosperous, and most industrialized. Some of the problems that Russia had to face with the transition from a centralized economy to a free market economy are and. and marked the difficult transition from tyranny to freedom. B. Eastern Europe Romania overthrow of communism was executing on Christmas Day. Unfortunately they exchanged one form of dictatorship for another Czechoslovakia overthrow of communism was and then the country was divided into and. The Breakup of Yugoslavia was violent, which ethnic minority wanted to acquire more land to secure the fate of it people?

6 List the New Nations that were formally a part of Yugoslavia? C. China Mao Zedong sent thousands of people to prison camps, why? Explain the Great Leap Forward: Explain what happened during the Cultural Revolution? When did Mao die? Explain what happened in Tiananmen Square? D. Japan Who headed the occupation government in Japan after WWII? What are some policy changes that he made? What political party kept control of the government from ? What caused them to be ousted out of power? E. Other Postwar Developments 1. North America a. United States The Great society was the idea of which President and what were its goals? Explain the Civil Right movement of the 1950s and 1960: Explain the social unrest of the 1960s and why it divided Americans What are some legacies of Ronald Reagan in the 1980s b. Canada Canada enjoyed the same level of economic property that the U.S. enjoyed after WWII, what in particular helped to foster that growth? Explain the Ethnic tensions in Canada during the 1960s:

7 c. Mexico Explain why Mexico did not experience the same level of economic growth after WWII NAFTA: Zapatistas: 2. Western Europe Who was the last dictator in Western Europe? King Juan Carlos restored government 1. Germany What is the name of the first Democratic Chancellor of Germany? Explain some of his principles that made Germany an economic miracle 2. France Charles de Gaulle led the provisional government during the WWII until 1946, why did he resign? France had a difficult time holding on to its colonies following WWII name two countries that it had conflict with? Explain the conflict in Algeria: What did De Gaulle do once he was asked to come back to be a leader of France? 3. Great Britain Great Britain started to experience a decline after WWII, why? The Labour party began pursuing what kind of economic policy? Conservative Margaret Thatcher (GB s counterpart to Reagan) instituted a lot of change to save Great Britain, list some of her action? What was she appropriately called because of her political and economic stance?

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