4/8/2015. April nations met. US and USSR on same side in WW II. Cold War Feb FDR, Churchill, Stalin Postwar issues

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1 Chapter 26 US and USSR on same side in WW II Not by choice Common enemy Cold War Feb FDR, Churchill, Stalin Postwar issues divide Germany free elections April nations met UN Charter written 2 bodies General Assembly all nations Security Council 5 permanent seats US, Britain, France, China, USSR July 1945 same issues as Yalta Truman announced atomic bomb test 1

2 US ended Lend Lease aid satellite nations US democracy USSR Communism George Kennan keep communism from spreading March 1947 Greece & Turkey needed aid Truman addressed Congress $400 million support free nations to prevent spread of communism April 1948 Sec. of State George Marshall European Recovery Program nearly $13 billion over 4 years 16 nations protect democracy & capitalism crimes against humanity 24 indicted, 22 tried 12 sentenced to death 2

3 4 zones US, Britain, France, USSR East Germany West Germany Churchill iron curtain has descended on Europe area of isolation and secrecy under Communist control 4 zones inside of E. Germany (Communist) West Berlin capitalist democracy 1948 Stalin blockades W. Berlin Berlin Airlift 15 months 3

4 created Dept. of Defense Pentagon Nat. Security Council advise president created CIA 1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization US, Canada, European nations attack on one attack on all 12 nations, grew to 15 by st US peacetime alliance since Revolution 4

5 1955 Soviet response to NATO USSR, 7 satellite nations 1949 Soviets tested A bomb Truman develop H bomb 1952 US tested H bomb 1953 USSR tested H bomb Peace fear of nuclear war?? Chiang Kai Shek democratic Mao Zedong communist started in 1930s 1949 Mao won China fell to communism 500 million Truman lost China MacArthur War Trials in Tokyo imprisoned, 7 hanged (Tojo) 1946 Democratic constitution became one world s strongest industrial powers 5

6 38 th parallel North Soviet occupied South US occupied troops pulled out June 1950 North invaded South UN got involved US sent troops MacArthur Drive N. Koreans out of South Soviet aid Attack at Inchon Sept N. Koreans retreated US, SK troops pursued northward told UN troops not to cross border Home by Christmas China claimed US crossed Yalu River China sent troops forced US, SK southward stalemate blockade China bomb China re ignite China civil war sent letter to Congress April 11, 1951 fired for insubordination April 19 farewell address war continued 2 more years 6

7 Dec Eisenhower travels to Korea July 1953 Ike threatened to use atomic weapons armistice signed Korea still divided US lost 54,000 men success?? peacetime production inflation nearly 33% supply and demand Strikes million workers coal, auto, steel Taft Hartley Act 1947 outlawed closed shop union leaders non communist oath Republican Thomas Dewey Democrat Truman States Rights Party Strom Thurmond Dixiecrat Party Democrats Progressive Party Henry Wallace Truman won 303/189/39 Dems controlled Congress extend New Deal programs extend Social Security most proposals failed Successes increased min. wage SS Act of

8 Loyalty Review Board 3 million employees investigated violation of freedoms House Un American Activities Comm. investigate disloyalty Hollywood Ten Alger Hiss state Dept. Jailed for perjury Julius and Ethel Rosenberg convicted of espionage executed in Soviet records linked Julius and Hiss to USSR made accusations about alleged communists 1954 Army McCarthy Hearings Red Scare died out 8

9 Dem. Adlai Stevenson Rep. Dwight Eisenhower/Nixon Nixon campaigning Checkers speech Eisenhower won (442 89) balance budget/cut gov t spending Interstate Highway Act recessions in 8 years AFL & CIO merged French colony Ho Chi Minh communist revolutionary US aided France 1954 Vietnam independence divided at 17 th parallel Khrushchev replaced Stalin somewhat able to get along 1955 W. Germany joined NATO 1956 Hungarian revolt Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries 9

10 Israel 1948 upset Palestinians Iran 1953 US helped overthrow Shaw oil shipments Suez Crisis Egypt sought aid from USSR seized canal Eisenhower Doctrine Dem. Stevenson Rep. Eisenhower Eisenhower won (457 73) Labor issues Space Race begins 1957 Sputnik ICBMs Feb US satellite Nat. Defense Educ. Act 1958 May 1960 U 2 spy plane shot down 1959 revolution pro communist sought aid from USSR US cut all ties in

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