Cold War Conflicts Chapter 26

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1 Cold War Conflicts Chapter 26

2 Former Allies Clash After World War II the US and the Soviets had very different goals for the future. Under Soviet communism the state controlled all property and economic activity. Totalitarian regime with no opposing political parties Under the US system of capitalism,private citizens controlled almost all economic activity. Americans voted for their leaders

3 World Peace Even though the US and the Soviet Union leaders distrusted each other, there were high hopes for world peace at the end of WWII. United Nations- On April 25, 1945 the representative of 50 nations met in San Francisco to establish this new peacekeeping organization. On June 26, 1945 the charter was signed establishing the United Nations.

4 Truman April 12, 1945 Truman becomes president when FDR dies. HE had been vice-president for only a few months. He was not included in most top policy decisions while vice-president. He had no idea that America was developing a nuclear bomb.

5 Potsdam Conference United States Truman Great Britain Atlee Soviet Union Stalin Final wartime conference

6 Stalin refused to allow free elections in Poland, a promise he had made to FDR. This decision convinced US leaders we were at odds with the Soviet Union. Truman felt the US had a large economic stake in spreading democracy and free trade across the globe. To continue as the world s economic power the US wanted access to raw materials from Eastern Europe, and they wanted to be able to sell goods to eastern European countries

7 Soviet Union also emerged from the war with enormous economic and military strength. However, they suffered heavy devastation from the fighting that had taken place on Soviet soil. At least 20 million dead, half of those were civilians. They dominated Eastern Europe, because they saw controlling this area as a way to prevent future invasions from the west. Satellite nations Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Poland all controlled by the Soviet Union. Stalin felt communism and capitalism were at odds and war was inevitable.

8 US Containment Policy George F. Kennan an American diplomat in Moscow proposed a policy of containment taking measures to prevent any extension of communist rule to other countries. Europe had been divided into to political regions mostly democratic Western Europe and a communist Eastern Europe. Iron curtain division of Europe Stalin felt Churchill s criticism was a call to war.

9 Cold War A conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union in which neither nation directly confronted the other on the battlefield. Ideologial, political, diplomatic Hot war one in which shots are fired.

10 Truman Doctrine It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures. Congress agreed with this policy, to help keep the Soviets from spreading communism Monetary help was our best effort between 1947 and 1950 the US sent over $400 million in aid to Turkey and Greece to reduce the danger of communist takeover in those nations.

11 Marshall Plan Much of western Europe was in shambles after the war. Millions living in refugee camps bitter cold winter Damaged crops, froze rivers, cut off water transportation and caused a fuel shortage. June 1947 Secretary of State George Marshall proposed that the US provide aid to all European nations that needed it saying that this move was directed not against any country or doctrine, but against Hunger, Poverty, Desperation and chaos. $13 billion in aid sent to 16 countries over the next 4 years

12 German reunification At the end of WWII Germany had been divided into four occupation zones. US, Great Britain, France, (West) and the Soviet Union (East) all of West Germany was combined into one nation Stalin closed all rail routes and highways into West Berlin. No food or fuel could reach that part of the city. 2.1 million people lived there and had only enough food for 5 weeks.

13 Berlin Airlift An attempt to break the blockade Briitsh and US officials flew food into Berlin 277,000 flights which brought in 2.3 million tons of supplies. May 1949 Soviets realized they had been beaten and lifted the blockade. However, West Germany became the nation Federal Republic of Germany

14 NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization defensive military alliance. 12 members of NATO pledged their support to one another in case any member of the group was attacked. First US alliance during peacetime Cold War ended any US hope of returning to policy of isolationism

15 Communist China Chinese communists had struggled against the nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek. US supported Chiang. Communists were led by Mao Zedong. When Japan left China at the end of WWII cooperation between the two groups ceased and Civil War errupted. US supported nationalists simply because they were not communists

16 Communism prevails Chang fled to Taiwan when he was defeated After more than 20 years of struggle communists ruled mainland China. They established a new government, the People s Republic of China, but the US refused to recognize this government. People in the US were outraged! The government had not done enough! Conservatives in Congress thought the government of the US was riddled with communist agents.

17 Korean War Japan had taken over Korea in 1910 and had ruled it until August As the WWII ended, the Japanese troops North of the 38 th parallel surrendered to Soviet troops. Those South of the 38 th parallel surrendered to Americans. Two nations developed, one communist, one democratic.

18 1948 Republic of Korea (South Korea) established Supported by America Government led by Sngman Rhee Democratic People s Republic of Korea (north) Supported by the Soviets Kim Il Sung led the government. US reduced troop support to only 500 troops. Soviets thought the US would not fight to defend South Korea and they prepared to invade with tanks, airplanes, money. all an attempt to take over the entire peninsula.

19 Korean War June 25, 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea in a surprise attack. UN Security Council voted, but the Soviet Union was boycotting the UN because Nationalist China was represented. On June 27 President Truman ordered troops stationed in Japan to support he South Koreans. He also sent American fleet into the waters between Taiwan and China. 16 nations sent 520,000 to aid South Korea. 90% troops were American Combined troops placed under the command of General Douglas MacArthur

20 At first the Northern troops seemed unstoppable. However, MacArthur launched a counter-offensive and drove the troops back North of the 38 th parallel. Seemed that the South might win, but China got involved. Communist leader Zhou En-lai did not want a democratic nation bordering China at the Yalu River. 300,000 Chinese troops joined the fight with North Korea. These troops dove the UN troops south. For two years this fighting continued, but neither side was able to make important advances.

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