SECTION 2: THE COLD WAR HEATS UP

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1 SECTION 2: THE COLD WAR HEATS UP

2 Terms and Names: Taiwan Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Korean War 38 th Parallel

3 In the name of containing communism, the US will become involved in a conflict in Korea. The US will also try to contain communism in China and ultimately fail. -A civil war in China has been going on for years already -The US backed the nationalist Republic of China leader, Chiang Kai-shek -The US did NOT back the leader of the communist government, Mao Zedong

4 -Chiang Kai-shek was supported by the US mostly because he wasn t communist -The US was impressed by his courage in fighting the Japanese during WWII -BUT..US officials and advisors felt Chiang had and ineffective and corrupt government -Chiang Kai-shek was ineffective as a military leader against Japan -He focused more on fighting Mao Zedong rather than the Japanese -Eventually (after he was kidnapped and only let go after agreeing to a tentative alliance with Chinese communists against the Japanese) he fought with Mao against Japan -The US poured massive amounts of money ($2 billion) into China hoping a united Chinese military would overwhelm the invading Japanese -That money often times disappeared inside the corrupt KMT government

5 Through all of this, Chiang lost support inside China for his passive approach to the Japanese invasion of China as well as reforms that favored land owners and businessmen instead of peasants (who were 90% of the population) Was Chiang Kai-shek judged too harshly by history Cairo Conference:

6 -Mao Zedong on the other hand endeared himself to the Chinese peasantry with his beliefs based on Marxism and shared community of equality -He was an effective military strategist against Chiang Kai-shek and eventually pushed Chiang into exile at the island of Formosa (Taiwan) -Chiang s failures with the peasants in China are as much to credit for Mao s success with the peasant population -With Chiang exiled, Mao Zedong was able to form the People s Republic of China -The PRC was now under communist rule even though most nations still officially recognized Chiang Kai-shek as the leader of China until US relations with China opened during the Nixon administration Mao Zedong's rule in China (supplement)

7 Segway to Korea With China now being communist, the fear inside the United States among politicians and the public towards communism make US policy makers reactive with an almost tunnel vision perspective to situations instead of taking an approach that was more calculated and well thought out. Hindsight is 20/20 though. * This domestic feeling along with Truman s new foreign policy of containment and the fears pertaining to the domino theory (popularized during Vietnam Era) had a lot to do with how the United States reacts to the situation in Korea.

8 How did Korea end up divided like Germany? -Japan ruled over Korea until is was liberated by the USSR and US -The Japanese above the 38 th Parallel surrendered to the USSR -The Japanese below the 38 th Parallel surrendered to the US

9 How did Korea end up divided like Germany? -Japan ruled over Korea until is was liberated by the USSR and US -The Japanese above the 38 th Parallel surrendered to the USSR -The Japanese below the 38 th Parallel surrendered to the US The Republic of Korea (South Korea) was led by Syngman Rhee out of the traditional capitol of Seoul The Democratic People s Republic of Korea (North Korea) was led by Kim Il Sung from their capitol in Pyongyang

10 North Korea invades South Korea to unify the nation into a single communist nation. North Korea pushes all the way to Pusan until the UN takes action (for once a unanimous vote by the UN Security Council) South Korea and UN forces (largely American) under the command of Gen. MacArthur push North Korean forces to the Yalu River The Chinese (backed by USSR) push the UN forces back south of Seoul and eventually settle near the 38 th parallel MacArthur suggested taking on China and even using nuclear weapons against them. Truman denied that request (WWIII?) and eventually fired MacArthur due to insubordination An armistice was finally signed on July 27, 1953 (The two sides are still officially at war with one another)

11 The end result is that the Korean War ended up along the same borders it originally was formed around. The Korean War heightened the fears of communism among the American public who sought a leader who would offer a more secure and militant approach to protecting America from communism. Democrats lost elections to the Republicans because they took a harder line against communism than their Democratic opponents who now suffered from the stereotype that they were soft in opposing communism (MacArthur-Korean War Effect)

12 Stevenson looses to Eisenhower in the 1952 US Presidential election. NEVER RUN AGAINST A WAR HERO -ADLAI STEVENSON

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