EOC Test Preparation: The Cold War Era

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1 EOC Test Preparation: The Cold War Era

2 Conflict in Europe Following WWII, tensions were running high between western Allies and USSR US and Great Britain: Allies should not occupy territories they conquered during the war Soviet Union: suffered great losses so wanted to maintain control over Eastern Europe Iron Curtain-division between Eastern and Western Europe Western half was democratic Eastern half was communist and deemed Soviet satellite nations

3 US Post-War Policies George Kennan (diplomat) suggested a strategy of containment Eastern Europe firmly in Soviet control US and West needs to focus on containing communism to the countries where it already existed. Do not let it spread! Truman Doctrine US would intervene and aid nations in resisting communism Marshall Plan Sec. of State George Marshall Built on Truman Doctrine Provided nations in war-torn Europe with financial support from US Money allowed countries to avoid communism and Soviet Union

4 Post-War Germany Germany divided into 4 zones, controlled by Soviet Union France Britain US Division of Berlin Western portion went to Allies Eastern portion went to Soviets

5 Post-War Germany Western Allies believed these divisions were temporary 1948, realized Stalin was not planning on giving up the areas he controlled Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) Democratic German Democratic Republic (East Germany) Communist

6 Post-War Asia China becomes communist following Mao Zedong revolution (1949) Korea divided along 38 th parallel Northern: communist Southern: democratic

7 Korean War June 1950 North Korean military crosses 38 th parallel UN decides to stand with South Korea US sends General MacArthur and troops to push enemy forces back Chinese sent military to aid North Koreans MacArthur fired after criticizing Truman Truce signed in 1953 Stalemate: political systems stayed the same, neither sides goals met

8

9 The Middle East The political geography of the Middle East quickly changed following the Holocaust The United Nations created a Jewish homeland in Palestine, known as Israel The West supported this; Arab nations resented the creation of Israel because Palestine was Arab territory

10 Eisenhower Doctrine Dwight Eisenhower elected president Concerned about the domino theory Spread of communism and Soviet aggression 1957: Eisenhower Doctrine US would aid any Middle Eastern country that wanted help to resist communism

11 Eisenhower Doctrine Nikita Khrushchev becomes Soviet leader after Stalin s death Attempted to rebuild relationship with Eisenhower. But

12 Eisenhower Doctrine U-2 Incident US spy plane shot down over USSR, Eisenhower tried to hide the mission, USSR provided evidence of the wrecked plane US did not apologize

13 Kennedy, Communism, Cuba Fidel Castro overthrew Cuban government and took control Executed over 700 opponents and jailed even more Castro had communist ties and allied himself with Soviet Union

14 Kennedy, Communism, Cuba John F. Kennedy becomes president in 1961 Wants to overthrow Castro Invasion at the Bay of Pigs on April 17, 1961 Terrible failure Embarrassment for Kennedy

15 Kennedy, Communism, Cuba Cuban Missile Crisis Castro and Soviets secretly put nuclear missiles in Cuba Kennedy authorized a naval blockade (1962) Tensions were high for 13 days, both the US and Soviet Union threatened nuclear war Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles if the US would not invade Cuba

16 Kennedy, Communism, Cuba Berlin Wall Khrushchev wanted to halt people from leaving East Germany and going to West Germany Soviet Union built a wall that separated the communist and democratic sectors

17 Alliances of the Cold War North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): mostly Western, democratic countries Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO): Australia, New Zealand, Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, France, Great Britain, US Organization of American States (OAS): create cooperation between Latin American nations and avoid communism Warsaw Pact: mostly Eastern, communist countries

18 Postwar United States Veterans of WWII and the Korean War are readjusting to American society GI Bill (Servicemen s Readjustment Act)- military veterans benefits: job priority, money for education, training, loans for homes Middle class emerges and move to suburbs Suburbanization Mostly whites leave cities where minorities live Baby Boom-those born late 1940s, 1950s. Education

19 Postwar United States Consumerism People have money and are willing to spend Big item: television Women go back to the kitchen Housewife

20 A New Red Scare Fear of communism and anyone taking part in the Communist Party Severe prejudice National Security Act (1947) and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) created to seek out communism CIA s main mission: spy on USSR and allies House Un-American Activities Committee sought out communists in US government and Society

21 Joseph McCarthy A New Red Scare Senator who believed communists had infiltrated the American government Accused many important politicians Eventually the hearings were televised and he lost favor with the public McCarthyism

22 Prepping for War Interstate highway system: created to mobilize citizens and military Military-industrial complex: relationship between military, Congress, industry that creates military goods Soviet Union is strong, America must build up its power

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