Beginnings of the Cold War

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1 Beginnings of the Cold War Chapter 15 Section 1 Problems of Peace At the end of World War II, Germany was in ruins and had no government. Much of Europe was also in ruins. Problems of Peace Occupied Germany At the Potsdam Conference, the Allies (Great Britain, France, United States, and the Soviet Union) agreed on several things. Temporarily divide Germany into 4 zones of occupation. Divide the German capital of Berlin into 4 zones of occupation even though it was deep in the Soviet Zone. Occupied Berlin Problems of Peace At the Potsdam Conference, the Allies (Great Britain, France, United States, and the Soviet Union) agreed on several things. Established a plan to rid Germany of the Nazi Party and Nazi beliefs. This was done in part with the Nuremburg Trials. Between 1945 and 1949, more than 200 Nazi and military officials were tried, several dozen were sentenced to death for war crimes and the Holocaust. 1

2 Nuremberg Trial Defendants Problems of Peace At the Potsdam Conference, the Allies (Great Britain, France, United States, and the Soviet Union) agreed on several things. Germany would pay reparations for the destruction it caused in the war. German currency German industrial equipment The Soviet Union would receive the largest share. Eastern Europe Eastern Europe Outside of Germany, the US and Great Britain argued with each other about what to do and often the Soviet Union disagreed with both. At Potsdam, the Soviet Union argued that it needed a buffer zone of friendly countries in case Germany attacked again, as in World War I and II. Eastern Europe Stalin promised to allow the people of eastern Europe to choose their own governments. American and British leaders believed Stalin would set up pro-soviet communist governments in Eastern Europe and beyond if allowed. The Conflict Worsens The relationship between the Soviet Union and Western nations became worse. Tension and hostility between the United States and Soviet Union became known as the Cold War. 2

3 The Struggle Begins The Cold War was more than a military rivalry it was a struggle for power and control between two nations with very different forms of government economic systems ways of life The Struggle Begins Pro-Soviet governments were set up in Eastern Europe. The only communist nation that was not under the control of the Soviet Union was Yugoslavia. Pro-Soviet Countries The Struggle Begins As communism spread, tension grew. It increased even more when Russia refused to remove its troops from northern Iran, a place it occupied during World War II. President Truman told his Secretary of State, Another war is in the making. January 1946 In February 1946, Stalin publicly stated that he believed a war between the East and West was bound to happen. The Struggle Begins As communism spread, tension grew. It increased even more when Russia refused to remove its troops from northern Iran, a place it occupied during world War II. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous The Struggle Begins As communism spread, tension grew. It increased even more when Russia refused to remove its troops from northern Iran, a place it occupied during world War II. cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow. -- Winston Churchill, March 5,

4 Sir Winston Churchill Iron Curtain Iron Curtain Iron Curtain The West Resists The West Resists In early 1947, the governments of Greece and Turkey were threatened by Sovietbacked communists. 4

5 The West Resists President Harry S Truman President Truman used this opportunity to announce the Truman Doctrine. The United States would provide economic and military aid to oppose the spread of communism. The US Congress agreed to send hundreds of millions of dollars in aid to Greece and Turkey. The West Resists George C. Marshall War-related economic problems hurt much of Europe. Truman feared this might push Europeans toward communism. In mid-1947, the Marshall Plan was announced. Named for Secretary of State George C. Marshall, the United States provided $13 billion to help Europe quickly recover and stabilize politically. Cold War Confrontations The Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan was the West s Cold War policy of containment. containment United States policy adopted in the 1940s to stop the spread of communism by providing economic and military aid to countries opposing the Soviets. Crisis in Berlin The division of Germany and Berlin was meant to be temporary. In 1947, Western leaders began to plan for an independent German nation from the zones they occupied as well as in West Berlin. With Berlin in the Soviet Zone, the Soviet Union opposed the plan. 5

6 Berlin Deep in the Soviet Zone Crisis in Berlin In June 1948, the Soviets blocked off all land, railroad, and water routes into West Berlin. West Berlin s 2,000,000 residents were unable to get supplies. The Soviet Union hoped this would force the West to leave Berlin. Crisis in Berlin Berlin Airlift Western leaders organized the Berlin Airlift, and started to fly in supplies by cargo planes. At one point, a cargo plane was taking off or landing in Berlin every 30 seconds. The Berlin Airlift was a success and the Soviets called off the blockade in Berlin Airlift Berlin Airlift 6

7 Berlin Airlift Berlin Airlift Propaganda New Nations and Alliances After the success of the Berlin Airlift, the western zones were merged into the Federal Republic of Germany or West Germany. A few months later, the Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic or East Germany. West & East Germany New Nations and Alliances NATO and the Warsaw Pact The United States, Canada, and most of the Western European countries joined in a military alliance in NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization The communist nations of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union created a military alliance in The Warsaw Pact 7

8 War in Korea With the surrender of Japan to end World War II, the Allies gained control of the Korean peninsula. The United States and Soviet Union agreed to temporarily divide the country. The Soviet Union quickly established a communist government in the north. The United States supported a non-communist government in the south. War in Korea In June 1950, North Korea attacked South Korea, wanting to unite the country under a communist government. Believing that failure to defend South Korea might lead to other attempts at communist expansion, the United States asked the United Nations (UN) to approve the use of force to stop North Korea. The United Nations War in Korea The UN sent a military force with troops from 17 nations to Korea. Most of the troops were American. Even with the UN troops, North Korea nearly took all of South Korea. General Douglas MacArthur invaded at Inchon, behind enemy lines the attack was successful and the North Koreans were pushed back almost into China. General Douglas MacArthur War in Korea At this point, the Chinese joined North Korea to drive the UN forces out of North Korea. During 1951, the war settled into a stalemate with the battle lines almost the same as when North Korea invaded. In 1953, both sides agreed to an armistice. 8

9 War in Korea War in Korea After three years of fighting, there were about 4 million causalities. Today, tensions still remain between North and South Korea. The Korean War is sometimes called the Forgotten War. Cold War Cause and Effect Causes Disagreements between the Allies during World War II. Differing US and Soviet political and economic systems. Differing goals for postwar Germany and Eastern Europe. Soviet expansion of communism in Eastern Europe. Resistance to Soviet aggression by the United States. Cold War Cause and Effect Effects Political and military struggles around the world. Increased military spending, leading to an arms race. The ever-present danger of nuclear war. 9

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