1 COLD WAR ORIGINS U.S vs. U.S.S.R. Democ./Cap vs Comm.
2 Section One: Objectives By the end, I will be able to: 1. Explain the breakdown in relations between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II 2. Summarize the steps taken to contain Soviet influence 3. Describe how the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan deepened Cold War tensions 4. Explain how conflicts over Germany increased fear of Soviet aggression
3 Section One: Origins of the Cold War Main Idea: The United States and the Soviet Union emerged from World War II as two superpowers with vastly different political and economic systems Key Terms: United Nations Satellite Nation Containment Iron Curtain Cold War Truman Doctrine Why it Matters Now: After WWII, differences between the US and the Soviet Union led to a Cold War that lasted almost to the 21 st Century Key Terms: Marshall Plan Berlin Airlift North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
4 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR The Cold War would dominate global affairs from 1945 until the breakup of the USSR in 1991 After being Allies during WWII, the U.S. and U.S.S.R. soon viewed each other with increasing suspicion Their political differences created a climate of icy tension that plunged the two countries into an era of bitter rivalry known as the Cold War
5 POLITICAL DIFFERENCES At the heart of the tension was a fundamental difference in political systems America is a democracy that has a capitalist economic system, free elections and competing political parties In the U.S.S.R., the sole political party the Communists established a totalitarian regime with little or no rights for the citizens Comes to a head at the end of WW2 Soviets viewed Marx, Engels and Lenin as founders of Communism
6 SUSPICIONS DEVELOPED DURING THE WAR ISSUES Even during the war, the two nations disagreed The U.S. was furious that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin had been an ally of Hitler for a time Stalin was upset that the U.S. had kept its development of the atomic bomb a secret The US discontinues Lend-Lease to USSR
7 Yalta Conference At the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the leaders of America, England and Russia met. They agreed to split up Germany into four zones, French, English, American, and Russian. Also, to split up Berlin into four zones. All declare support for self-govt and free elections Stalin Promises to hold elections in Eastern Europe (Fails)
8 Potsdam At the Potsdam Conference (near Berlin) in July & August 1945, the leaders of America (Truman), England (Attlee) and the Soviet Union (Stalin) met again. The Atomic Bomb had been successfully tested, and President Truman let Stalin know that the U.S had a new weapon of extraordinary force. Stalin dislikes the secrecy around the Atomic Bomb Finalize division of Germany and Berlin Soviets had rigged elections in Poland to insure communist rule Soviets are seeking to spread totalitarian rule and communism (Bias or Fact)
9 THE UNITED NATIONS PROVIDES HOPE The United Nations today has 191 member countries Hopes for world peace were high at the end of the war The most visible symbol of these hopes was the United Nations (U.N.) Formed in June of 1945, the U.N. was composed of 50 nations Unfortunately, the U.N. soon became a forum for competing superpowers to spread their influence over others
10 CHURCHILL: IRON CURTAIN ACROSS EUROPE Churchill, right, in Fulton, Missouri delivering his iron curtain speech, 1946 Europe was now divided into two political regions; a mostly democratic Western Europe and a communist Eastern Europe In a 1946 speech, Churchill said, An iron curtain has descended across the continent The phrase iron curtain came to stand for the division of Europe
11 Iron Curtain cartoon, 1946
12 SOVIETS DOMINATE EASTERN EUROPE The Soviet Union suffered an estimated 20 million WWII deaths, half of whom were civilian Felt justified in their claim to Eastern Europe Eastern Europe could be a buffer against future German aggression
13 STALIN INSTALLS PUPPET GOVERNMENTS In a 1946 speech, Stalin said communism and capitalism were incompatible and another war was inevitable Stalin installed satellite communist governments in the Eastern European countries of Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia and East Germany This after promising free elections for Eastern Europe at the Yalta Conference
15 U.S. ESTABLISHES A POLICY OF CONTAINMENT Assumption: Soviets seek world domination. Why did we think that? In February 1946, George Kennan, an American diplomat in Moscow, proposed a policy of containment Containment meant the U.S. would assist countries resisting communist rule First tests: Turkey and Greece Failure: Hungary (asked for help, but didn t get it, why?)
16 THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE The American policy of containment soon expanded into a policy known as the Truman Doctrine This doctrine, first used in Greece and Turkey in the late 1940s, vowed to provide aid (money & military supplies) to support free peoples who are resisting outside pressures By 1950, the U.S. had given $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey So why didn t it work in Hungry?
17 THE MARSHALL PLAN The Marshall Plan helped Western Europe recover economically Post-war Europe was devastated economically, capitalism can not work if infrastructure is broken. In June 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall proposed a U.S. aid package to European nations Western Europe accepted the help, while Eastern Europe rejected the aid. Why wouldn't Eastern Europe want help from the US? Over the next four years 16 European countries received $13 billion in U.S. aid By 1952 Western Europe s economy was flourishing Containment??
18 Marshall Plan aid sent to European countries USSR rejects help: Would have to share info with US Allow US to see how funds were being spent Give some control over economic planning and decision making What is better? Communism Capitalism
19 By providing assistance what is America doing for Europe? What would you title the ground?
21 SUPERPOWERS STRUGGLE OVER GERMANY Agreements from Yalta and Potsdam divided Germany and Berlin The U.S, France, and Great Britain decided to combine their 3 zones into one zone West Germany, or the federal Republic of Germany The U.S.S.R. controlled East Germany, or the German Democratic Republic Soviets see US Spheres of influence being created How does the US View its own actions?
22 BERLIN AIRLIFT 1948 When the Soviets attempted to block the three Western powers from access to Berlin in 1948, the 2.1 million residents of West Berlin had only enough food for five weeks, resulting in a dire situation Like the whole of Germany, the city of Berlin was divided into four zones
25 AMERICA & BRITAIN AIRLIFT SUPPLIES TO WEST BERLIN Not wanting to invade and start a war with the Soviets, America and Britain started the Berlin airlift to fly supplies into West Berlin For 327 days, planes took off and landed every few minutes, around the clock In 277,000 flights, they brought in 2.3 million tons of food, fuel and medicine to the West Berlin
26 SOVIETS LIFT BLOCKADE Realizing they were beaten and suffering a public relations nightmare, the Soviets lifted their blockade in May, 1949 On Christmas 1948, the plane crews brought gifts to West Berlin
27 NATO FORMED The NATO flag The Berlin blockade increased Western Europe s fear of Soviet aggression As a result, ten West European nations joined the U.S and Canada on April 4, 1949 to form a defensive alliance known as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
28 Warsaw Pact May 1955 Eight communist countries= Bloc Pledged the mutual defense of any member who is attacked Ended in July 1991
29 Section One: Objectives By the end, I will be able to: 1. Explain the breakdown in relations between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II 2. Summarize the steps taken to contain Soviet influence 3. Describe how the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan deepened Cold War tensions 4. Explain how conflicts over Germany increased fear of Soviet aggression
30 Section 2: The Cold War Heats Up By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Explain how Communists came to power in China and how the United States reacted. 2. Summarize the events of the Korean War 3. Explain the conflict between President Truman and General MacArthur.
31 Section Two: The Cold War Heats Up Main Idea: After World War II, China became a communist nation and Korea was split into a communist north and a democratic south. Key Terms: Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Taiwan Why it Matters Now: Ongoing tensions with China and North Korea continue to involve the United States. Key Terms: 38 th parallel Korean War
32 SECTION 2: THE COLD WAR HEATS UP CHINA: For two decades, Chinese communists had struggled against the nationalist government of Chiang Kai-Shek The U.S. supported Chiang and gave the Nationalist Party $3 billion in aid during WWII However, Mao Zedong s Communist Party in China was strong, especially among Chinese peasants
33 CHINESE CIVIL WAR: MAO Kai-Shek After Japan left China at the end of the War, Chinese Nationalists and Communists fought a bloody civil war Despite the U.S. sending $ billions to the Nationalists, the Communists under Mao won the war and ruled China Chiang and the Nationalists fled China to neighboring Taiwan Mao established the People s Republic of China
34 AMERICA STUNNED The American public was shocked that China had fallen to the Communists Many believed containment had failed and communism was expanding American fear of communism and communist expansion was increasing
35 KOREAN WAR Soviet controlled U.S. controlled Japan had taken over Korea in 1910 and ruled it until August 1945 As WWII ended, Japanese troops north of the 38 th parallel (38 N Latitude) surrendered to the Soviets Japanese soldiers south of the 38 th surrendered to the Americans As in Germany, two nations developed, one communist (North Korea) and one democratic (South Korea)
36 NORTH KOREA ATTACKS SOUTH KOREA On June 25, 1950, North Korean forces swept across the 38 th parallel in a surprise attack on South Korea With only 500 U.S. troops in South Korea, the Soviets figured the Americans would not fight to save South Korea Instead, America sent troops, planes and ships to South Korea (Total UN forces 520,000 and 90% American) This attack started the Korean War
37 MACARTHUR S COUNTERATTACK At first, North Korea seemed unstoppable However, General MacArthur launched a counterattack with tanks, heavy artillery, and troops Troops landed in the cities on Inchon and Pusan squeezing the NK troops into the middle Many North Koreans surrendered; others retreated across the 38 th parallel
38 CHINA JOINS THE FIGHT US seemed to be near victory in N. Korea 300,000 Chinese soldiers joined the war on the side of the North Koreans Chinese overran the American/S. Korean forces and captured Seoul for the 2 nd time on January 4, 1951 The fight between North and South Korea had turned into a war in which the main opponents were Chinese Communists vs. America Stalemate follows.
39 MACARTHUR RECOMMENDS ATTACKING CHINA To halt the bloody stalemate, General MacArthur wanted to take the war into China MacArthur called for the U.S. to drop atomic bombs on China President Truman rejected the General s requests
40 MACARTHUR VS. TRUMAN MacArthur continued to urge President Truman to attack China and tried to go behind Truman s back Truman was furious with his general On April 1, 1951, Truman made the shocking announcement that he had fired MacArthur Americans were surprised and many still supported their fallen general Macarthur was given a tickertape parade
41 AN ARMISTICE IS SIGNED July 1953, an agreement was signed that ended the war in a stalemate (38th parallel) America s cost: 54,000 lives and $67 billion Difficulty fighting Everyone is Korean Truman desegregates the armed forces during Korean War Korean War Memorial, Washington D.C.
42 Discussion: Turn and Talk 1. What do you suppose were some of the reasons why American troops had trouble fighting this war? 2. In what ways did American troops underestimate their enemies? 3. Do you think we should have aided the South Koreans in this war? 4. Do you blame China for getting involved in the conflict? 5. Were you surprised at the outcome of the war? Why or why not?
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