The Cold War Begins: CHAPTER 39

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1 The Cold War Begins: CHAPTER 39

2 OBJECTIVES Describe the economic transformation of the immediate post-wwii era. Explain the changes in the American population structure brought about the baby boom. Explain the growth of the tensions between the US and the Soviet Union after Roosevelt s death and Germany s defeat

3 OBJECTIVES Describe the early Cold War conflicts over Germany and Eastern Europe Describe the expansion of the Cold War to Asia and the Korean War. Analyze the postwar domestic climate in America and explain the growing fear of internal communist subversion.

4 Roots of the Cold War U.S. point of view Stalin seemed intent on creating spheres of influence in Eastern Europe Yalta Conference U.S. wanted democracy spread throughout the world Iron Curtain Speech Soviet Point of view Eastern Europe would become a buffer zone Partitioning Korea & Vietnam (1954 Geneva Conference: after French were defeated at Dein Bein Phu) split into northern and southern zones Germany split into 4 zones with Berlin also being split in to quadrants

5 The Cold War [ ]: An Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [ Iron Curtain ] GOAL spread worldwide Communism METHODOLOGIES: 1. Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] 2. Arms Race [nuclear escalation] US & the Western Democracies GOAL Containment of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] 3. Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] proxy wars 4. Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]

6 The Division of Berlin Berlin Blockade & Airlilft

7 The Bipolarization of Europe

8 National Defense Budget [ ] US gov t reorganization and rearmament 1. National Security Act of 1947 created the Department of Defense 2. National Security Council (NSC) Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) NSC Number 68 (1950) 5. Voice of America 6. Atomic Energy Commission

9 George Kennan [ X Article ]: CONTAINMENT Goals Means Actual Application 1. Restoration of the balance of power Encouragement of selfconfidence in nations threatened by Soviet expansion. Long-term program of U.S. economic assistance [Marshall Plan] 2. Reduction of Soviet ability to project outside power. Exploitation of tensions in international communism. Cooperation with communist regimes; [supporting Titoism in Yugoslavia]

10 George Kennan [ X Article ]: CONTAINMENT Goals Means Actual Application 3. Modification of the Soviet concept of international relations. Negotiating settlement of outstanding differences. Using carrots & sticks ; containing Germany with an embrace and Russia at arms length.

11 Policy of Containment 1947, US ambassador to Russia, George Kennan, warned Truman that the USSR sought to expand its empire Became the basis for Truman s containment policy Truman Doctrine- defined US policy for the next 20 years Initiated a policy of containment Truman asked congress for $400 million to support democracy in Turkey and Greece Marshall Plan (1947) Sec. of State George C. Marshall invited Europeans to create a joint plan for economic recovery. US would provide financial assistance Congress at first hesitant but change course after the Sovietsponsored coup d etat in Czechoslovakia in Feb Within a few years, most recipients of the plan s aid were exceeding prewar output E. Europe nations prohibited from accepting US & W. European aid

12 Cold War during Truman s 2nd Term (under Sec. of Sate Dean Acheson) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (Nato) Collective security organization that essentially warned Moscow that a threat to any of the signatories would be met with force Warsaw Pact included all Eastern Bloc countries- satellite countries ANZUS CENTO Soviet Union exploded atomic bomb in Sept. 1949; U.S. no longer had monopoly World now had 2 atomic superpowers China became Communist in 1949 Chang-Kai-Shek Mao Zedongs communist forces defeated nationalists who fled to Formosa (Taiwan) The Hydrogen Bomb Worlds two super powers were U.S. & USSR

13 Korean War [ ]

14 Korean War [ ] Kim Il-Sung Syngman Rhee Domino Theory

15 The Shifting Map of Korea [ ]

16 Cold War during Truman s 2nd Term (under Sec. of Sate Dean Acheson) Negotiations of Korean War Cease fire (July 27, 1953) DMZ Results of Korean War 54,000 US soldiers & 3,000 UN troops dead UN repelled North Korean attack US successfully enforced its containment policy

17 Truman s First Term Taft-Hartley Act, June 1947 Conservative response to powerful labor unions John L. Lewis right to work laws Civil Rights: gains for African Americans To Secure These Rights Desegregation of the armed forces Jackie Robinson Presidential Succession Act of nd Amendment, 1951 ( Anti-FDR amendment )

18 Anti-Communist Crusade- Red Scare American fears- paranoia regarding communism and its sympathizers Smith Act of 1940 Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) indicts Alger Hiss, 1947 Richard Nixon led the movement to indict Alger Hiss Truman s loyalty program Loyalty Review Board McCarran Internal Security Bill (1950) The Rosenbergs, 1954 Blacklisting Hollywood Ten McCarthyism Senator Joseph R. McCarthy (Wisconsin Republican John Birch Society Arthur Miller s The Crucible

19 Election of 1948 Truman defeats Dewey in a stunning upset Democrats split into 3 camps: Truman, southern States Rights party, Progressive Party Thomas Dewey republican candidate Truman called for housing, full employment, and higher minimum wage, better farm supports, new TVAs and extension of social security and more civil rights for African Americans Truman s victory came with support from farmers, workers, and blacks Democrats established clear majority in both houses of Congress

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