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1 Cold War

2 Germany Divided into 4 zones of occupation; Berlin also divided

3 Japan Occupied by U.S. troops Demilitarized Industries re-built with modern machinery

4 Divided into 2 zones of occupation (USSR and US) Boundary is 38 th parallel (38 North latitude) Korea

5 What should be done about? Maintaining Peace? United Nations created by 50 nations that met in 1945 in San Francisco

6

7 The United Nations is a Peacekeeping organization which pledged to save succeeding generations free from the scourge of war.

8 What should be done about? Rebuilding Europe? Marshall Plan gave money to rebuild European cities and industries ($13 billion) Marshall Plan also offered to the Soviet Union, Stalin refuses for entire Soviet Bloc countries.

9

10 What should be done about? Jews Israel created by United Nations as a homeland for the Jews Israel is created in Palestine Resulted in conflict with the Arabs who lived there. Became independent in 1948; Attacked by neighboring countries THE NEXT DAY!

11

12 Map creation of Israel

13 Pair Share What happened to Germany after the war? What happened to Korea after the war? What happened to Japan after the war? Why was the United Nations created? Why was Israel created? What was the Marshall Plan?

14 But the really BIG question was What should be the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union?

15 The Problem.. We did not Trust the Russians Stalin didn t trust anybody We became concerned about the spread of Communism

16 Spread of Communism unis.htm

17 Results.. Stalin stated that communism should be spread to other nations Didn t allow occupied parts of Germany and Korea to hold free elections (they became East Germany and North Korea.

18 Results Supported and controlled communist dictatorships in Eastern Europe Used Eastern European countries to create a buffer zone against attack and Western ideas Travel and communication between communist countries and the rest of the world restricted.

19 United States did not trust the Russians Stalin did not trust anybody

20 Presentations Containment Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan NATO

21 United States Establishes a Policy of Containment. U.S. forms a policy of containment measures to prevent the spread of communism The Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan and NATO are the three pillars of containment.

22 Countries of Eastern Europe became known as the Iron Curtain countries Soviet Bloc Soviet satellite countries The Iron Curtain became a heavily fortified border through Europe.

23 The Iron Curtain took physical form in the shape of border defenses between the countries of the western and eastern blocs.

24 What do they mean by No Admittance by order of Joe? Who is Joe and who are they keeping out?

25 Iron Curtain in Germany In some places a "death strip" was constructed on the East German side of the barrier, in which unauthorized access would be met with bullets. The actual borderline was marked by posts and signs and was overlooked by numerous watchtowers set behind the barrier.

26 Pair Share Why were Western nations afraid of the spread of communism? What is meant by the term Iron Curtain? What is the policy of containment? What are the three pillars of containment? What was the purpose of the Marshall Plan?

27 Berlin Blockade USSR s attempted to stop France, Britain, and the U.S. from combining their occupied zones in German into the country of West Germany. USSR cut off routes in and out of West Berlin. USSR halted all supplies going into Berlin via ground transportation.

28 Presentation Berlin Airlift

29 Result U.S. and Britain fly all food and supplies into Berlin called the Berlin Airlift. Airlift continued for 321 days; 272,000 flights were flown into West Berlin. Lasted from June, 1948 to May Ended when Stalin realized the blockade was a failure.

30 Berlin Airlift

31 The world is divided into The Democratic World: Western Europe Japan Austrailia United States

32 Communist World: USSR Soviet Bloc China North Korea later Cuba

33 So what should be the response of the United States? Truman Doctrine The United States will provide economic and military aid to stop the spread of communism to other nations. (Policy of Containment)

34 The Truman Doctrine

35 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) military alliance to protect all members from attack; included United States, Canada, and Western European nations. It was a reaction to the Berlin Blockade.

36

37 Warsaw Pact military alliance of USSR and European satellite nations formed in response to NATO Allowed Soviet troops to be stationed in each member country. The armies of the member countries were under control of the USSR. Countries involved included Albania, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, East Germany, Hungary, Romania, Poland, and the Soviet Union

38

39 NATO & Warsaw Pact Map

40 Cold War Presentation

41 Bottom Line. Democracy vs. Communism (political) Communism vs. Capitalism (economic) Superpower (US) vs. Superpower (USSR) Eastern Europe vs. Western Europe North Korea vs. South Korea Republic of China (Taiwan) vs. Peoples Republic of China (Mainland China) Cuba vs. United States North Vietnam vs. South Vietnam

42 The Cold War. the hostility that grew out of this rivalry and mistrust between the United States and the Soviet Union. began immediately after World War II ended and continued until the fall of the Soviet Union in the early 1990 s

43 Causes of Cold War. Mutual distrust between United States and USSR communists hoped for world-wide revolution Stalin s refusal to allow self-government in Eastern Europe and North Korea Communists took over China Mao Zedong 1940

44 Effects of Cold War Truman Doctrine giving aid to nations to keep them from coming under communist control Policy of containment restricting communism to where it currently existed

45 Effects of Cold War Increased Marshall Plan aide Good economy meant market for United States products and less chance of communists taking control. Eastern European countries became soviet Satellites as a buffer between USSR and Europe

46 CIA In January, 1946, Truman established the Central Intelligence Agency.

47 CIA spies gather information in foreign countries. During the Cold War the CIA began to carry out covert, or secret, operations to weaken or overthrow governments unfriendly to the United States.

48 Pair Share What was the Truman Doctrine? Why was NATO created? Who is part of NATO? Why was the Warsaw Pact created? Who is part of the Warsaw Pact? What was Truman s policy of dealing with communism called? What was the Berlin Airlift? Why did we need the Berlin Airlift? Why was the CIA created?

49 How did the Berlin Airlift support the U.S. policy of containment? How did the formation of NATO support the U.S. policy of containment?

Name Period Cold War Germany Divided into zones of occupation; also

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