The end of WWII caused major changes:

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1 The Cold War

2 The end of WWII caused major changes:

3 1. Europe is no longer the world s dominant power

4 The USA and the USSR have become superpowers.

5 2. The world has entered...the nuclear age

6 Tension was caused by...

7 1. Fear of the other

8 2. Mistrust of the other

9 3. Rivalry

10 Despite his promise of free elections in the occupied countries, Stalin imposed Communist governments.

11 Poland Czechos... Hungary Yugoslavia Albania Romania? Bulgaria

12 The Soviet Zone of Germany became East Germany.

13 West Berlin remained part of West Germany.

14 Berlin at the Start of the Cold War

15 A City Divided

16 In 1946, there were 2 famous speeches which proclaimed the existence of the Cold War.

17 1. Stalin predicted WW3 between the rich capitalists and the working class two hostile camps.

18 2. _safety_mode=1&safe=active "A shadow has fallen upon the scene so lately lighted by the Allied victory. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. the iron curtain.

19 Both speeches increased tensions between the 2 super powers.

20 The following year, Harry S. Truman declared The Truman Doctrine

21 At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one. One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression.

22 The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio, fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms.

23 I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.

24 I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.

25 I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes.

26 The US should offer financial and military aid to stop communist expansion around the world

27 This is the policy of containment

28 ...a policy adopted by the US to stop the spread of communism from outside the USSR s borders

29

30

31 Peace Freedom Wealth

32 In 1947, US Secretary of State George Marshall announced The Marshall Plan a program of financial assistance to European countries devastated by WW2

33 But these loans had conditions. The US demanded. To see the economic records so the US could see their needs To see the plan the countries have for using the money

34 WHY such generosity?

35 1. To help European reconstruction

36 2. To encourage democracy

37 3.

38 4. Create new markets for American products

39 5. Avoid global economic recession

40 6. Stimulate the American economy

41 The US injects money into Europe which in turn buys goods from the US $$$$ $$$$$$$$$$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $

42 The Soviets are threatened by this American money and their expansion of capitalism

43 Down with international capitalism

44 Molotov the same Soviet foreign minister who made a pact with the Nazis

45 ...created the Molotov Plan for the communist countries of eastern Europe

46 The USSR doesn t provide money like the US, but it guarantees trade between nations

47 The Berlin Blockade

48 In 1948, GB, France and the US agree to economic and political reforms in their respective zones in West Germany

49 In other words A) Economic = Capitalism B) Political = Democracy

50 Stalin is furious

51 He orders a blockade around all of West Berlin s access points

52 1. River

53 2. Road autobahn

54 3. Rail

55 Stalin cuts off the 2.1 million inhabitants of West Berlin to stop the creation of West Germany

56 In turn, the Allies imposed a blockade on exports of goods to the Soviet sector.

57 The US and GB organized an air lift. Thousands of tons of supplies are flown in around the clock for 11 months

58 Contrary to the predictions of Stalin, the blockade strengthens the connection between West Berlin and the Allies.

59

60

61

62

63

64 In May1949, the three Allied sectors form (German Federal Republic) West Germany with Bonn as its capital

65 In October 1949, the Soviet sector became (German Democratic Republic) East Germany with Berlin as its capital

66 Now there are TWO Germanys

67 International Organizations

68 1.

69 At Yalta the three great powers organized the new world order

70 In creating the United Nations, Roosevelt wanted to avoid the mistakes of the League of Nations. World powers must be members.

71 To ensure the membership of the US...

72 John D. Rockefeller donated land in NYC for the construction of UN headquarters

73 How can all countries, from the most to the least powerful, benefit from the UN?

74 General Assembly Each country has a representative on the GA. They choose a Secretary General. Today this is António Guterres from Portugal

75 Security Council The real power of the UN here is divided into two groups:

76 The permanent members 1. France GB US USSR Each one has a veto right China

77 The non-permanent members other countries are elected every two years

78 They decide upon sanctions... economic and military

79 2. NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization

80

81 In 1949, 12 countries formed an alliance against the Soviet Threat

82 The Parties of NATO agreed that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all. Consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defence will assist the Party or Parties being attacked, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area.

83 France GB US Canada Belgium Holland Denmark Norway Iceland Italy Portugal Lux.

84 Lord Ismay, the first Secretary General of NATO, said the purpose of the organization was... "to keep the Russians out, the Americans in, and the Germans down"

85 3. Warsaw The Warsaw Pact

86 In 1955, West Germany became a member of NATO. In response to this the Soviets formed the Warsaw Pact alliance

87 Warsaw Pact Membership Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania USSR

88

89 The Korean War

90 1. Flashpoint

91 1946

92 1948

93 1949

94 1950

95 In 1949, China became communist under the leadership of Mao Zedong

96 The anticommunist forces, the Kuomintang, led by Chiang Kai-shek retreated to the island of Taiwan.

97 In 1945, Korea was liberated from Japan by the USSR from the north, and the US from the south The 38 th Parallel was the dividing line

98 As in Germany, the country is divided into two zones of occupation.

99 The north is communist and led by Kim Il Sung.

100 The capitalist south is led by Syngman Rhee.

101 In June 1950, the north invades the south

102 The Security Council of the UN approved military intervention to defend the south But the USSR has a veto, so how could this have happened?

103 The Security Council in 1950 Taiwan Boycotting

104 The international community recognized Taiwan (capitalist) as the official government of China. In protest the Soviets boycotted the UN

105 In October, a coalition of troops from the south and from the UN push the northern communist forces back

106 US general Douglas MacArthur wanted to continue the offensive and wipe the Chinese communists out of Korea

107 He proposes using total war by using atomic weapons.

108 Fearing WW3, Truman says NO.

109 Taking advantage of the hesitation of the U.S. and the UN, the northern Chinese regain the territory.

110 In secret negotiations the US and USSR decide to keep Korea divided along the 38 th Parallel

111 The result?

112 military deaths

113 to civilian deaths

114 Intervention of the UN and the US in Korea

115 Air Naval Land South Korea Other countries US 93 % 86 % 50 %

116 Korea: US Containment OR UN Peacemaking? Peacemaking is the diplomatic effort intended to move a violent conflict to nonviolence usually through negotiation and mediation. Does what happened in Korea seem like peacemaking?

117 It was convenient for the US to enter Korea under the UN banner as peacekeepers, but the US would have sent troops in anyway to prevent the spread of communism. Asia was key for the USA to halting the spread of Communism. US felt they had to take a stand and this is what they did in Korea.

118 What effect did Korea have on the UN? The Uniting for Peace resolution

119 The Uniting for Peace resolution It allowed the General Assembly to make decisions whenever the SC is deadlocked. With USSR boycotting the Security Council, this resolution was passed to prevent stalemate caused by future Russian vetoes.

120 The Cuban Missile Crisis

121 Flash point #2

122

123 Before the Cuban revolution American Companies controlled

124 1. 90% of Cuba s mineral wealth

125 2. 80% of the public services

126 3. 40% of the sugar cane industry

127 The US supports the dictator... Fulgencio Batista

128 who does not share the wealth with the poor.

129 Batista US President Eisenhower

130 In 1959, a young socialist revolutionary comes to power by force. Fidel Castro

131 His friend, an Argentinean physician helps in the revolution. Ernesto Che Guevara

132 Castro improves the lives of the poor Cuban people.

133 1. $ He confiscates American private property for the use of all Cubans

134 2. He nationalises all main industries Nationalization = government takes over ownership of industry from private owners

135 3. He redistributes land to the poor

136 4. He constructs housing for the poor

137 5. He provides free universal health care

138 6. Education is universal and free

139 But

140 there is a loss of freedom

141 Castro controls

142 1. The media

143 the unions 2.

144 3. The economy

145 4. The army

146 During the revolution, the rich Cubans...

147 Went into exile in the U.S.... especially in Miami.

148 Dwight D. Eisenhower is furious and imposes an embargo on Cuba.

149

150 Castro asks for help from Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev.

151 The Soviets buy a lot of Cuba s sugar and provide Castro with arms.

152 In 1961, John F. Kennedy asks the CIA to organize an invasion of Cuba with the help of an army of Cuban exiles.

153 The Bay of Pigs was a disaster. The Cuban people defended their island with the help of Soviet weapons and the invasion failed. This was a great success for Castro, great embarrassment for JFK.

154 many soldiers were captured

155 Citing the US threat to Cuba, the USSR secretly ships missiles to Cuba

156 and secretly builds missile bases.

157 The estimated range of missiles in Cuba

158 But the US finds out so JFK announces a naval blockade of all shipping around Cuba

159 Timeline 14 Oct, 1962 U2 spy plane gets photos of missile site in Cuba 22 Oct US announces it will stop and search all ships bound for Cuba in 48 hours 23 Oct USSR calls this an act of war and says their ships will not respect blockade 24 Oct 18 Soviet ships turn around just before reaching limit set by US (phew!) US then announced it would invade Cuba if all missiles not removed at once 25 Oct US planned air strike for 29 th or 30. THIS WOULD START WWIII!!!

160

161

162 In secret negotiations, Kennedy agreed to remove US missiles from Turkey if Khrushchev withdrew Soviet missiles from Cuba.

163 2400 km

164 End of the Crisis In a secret deal the Soviets agreed to withdraw the missiles in exchange for: US promise never to invade Cuba Immediate end to the naval blockade US must withdraw its missiles from Turkey The American public didn t know about the missiles in Turkey so Kennedy wanted to do that in secret at a later date

165 They agree to install a hotline for direct communication between the two superpowers so as to avoid brinkmanship in future

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