2. The State Department asked the American Embassy in Moscow to explain Soviet behavior.

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2 1. The Americans become increasingly impatient with the Soviets. 2. The State Department asked the American Embassy in Moscow to explain Soviet behavior. 3. On February 22, 1946, George Kennan an American diplomat, responded with the Long Telegram. 4. In the telegram: a. Kennan discussed Russian insecurity and fear of the West and why it was impossible to reach an agreement. b. He proposed a long-term containment of Russian expansion.

3 This led to Truman s policy of containment 1. Containment - keeping communism within its present territory 2. Containment would involve diplomatic, economic, and military actions.

4 Iran and Oil 1. After WWII, Soviet troops remained in northern Iran, demanding access to Iran s oil supplies. 2. Soviet troops helped Communists in northern Iran set up a separate government. 3. The United States demanded their withdrawal and sent a US battleship into the eastern Mediterranean. 4. The Soviets withdrew from Iran.

5 The Truman Doctrine. 1. On March 12, 1947, Truman went before congress to request $400 million to fight Soviet aggression in Greece and Turkey. 2. The Policy became known as the Truman Doctrine. 3. Its purpose was to stabilize the Greek government and ease Soviet demands in Turkey. 4. It became the United State s pledge to stop communism in the world.

6 1. Postwar Western Europe faced economic ruin and starvation. 2. In June 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall proposed the European Recovery Program called the Marshall Plan. 3. The Plan would give European nations American Aid to rebuild.

7 4. The Plan was an effort to fight hunger, poverty, and chaos. 5. The Soviet Union and its satellite nations in Eastern Europe rejected the offer and developed their own economic program. 6. The Marshall Plan gave billions of dollars worth of supplies, machinery, and food to Western Europe 7. It lessened the appeal of communism and opened new trade markets.

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9 By early 1948, the United States, Great Britain, and France merged their zones in Germany and in Berlin, 1. The allied part became West Germany. 2. The Soviet zone eventually became known as East Germany.

10 In June 1948, Soviet troops stopped all road and rail traffic to West Berlin 1. They hoped to force Americans to renegotiate Germany s status or give up Berlin. 2. In Response, Truman sent long-range bombers with atomic weapons to bases in Britain. 3. Truman then ordered the Berlin Airlift. 4. For eleven months, cargo planes supplied Berliners with food, medicine, and coal. 5. Stalin finally lifted the blockade on May 12.

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13 What were the goals of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan? What triggered the beginning of the Berlin airlift?

14 1. Congress supported American participation in a military alliance with Western Europe. 2. NATO - a mutual defense alliance, 12 nations originally 3. The members agreed to come to the aid of any member who was attacked.

15 The Warsaw Pact. 1. The US and its allies allowed West Germany to join NATO. 2. Soviet leaders responded with their own Eastern Europe alliance known as the Warsaw Pact.

16 Members of NATO and Warsaw Pacts

17 China turns Red 1. Communist forces and Nationalist forces had been battling since the late 1920s. 2. The two had stopped their war during World War II in an effort to resist Japanese occupation. 3. With the end of World War II, civil war broke out again. 4. The Nationalists were defeated after poor leadership caused the US to stop sending aid. 5. In October 1949, Communists set up the People s Republic of China, led by Mao Zedong.

18 First Soviet Nuclear Test Announced, In September, China and USSR signed a treaty of friendship and alliance, early 1950.

19 The United States was able to keep Communist China out of the United Nations 1. The UN allowed Nationalists from Taiwan to retain their seats. 2. The Soviets boycotted the UN.

20 Japan 1. The US lost China as its main ally in Asia 2. It then adopted policies to encourage the quick recovery of Japan s industrial economy. 3. The US saw Japan as its key in defending Asia.

21 How did the revolution in China affect American foreign policy with Japan?

22 Korea Splits 1. At the end of World War II, American and Soviet forces entered Korea to disarm Japanese troops stationed there. 2. The Allies divided Korea at the 38th parallel of latitude. 3. Soviet troops controlled the north and set up a Communist government.

23 4. American troops controlled the south with an American-backed government. 5. The Soviets gave military aid to the north 6. On June 25, 1950, North Korean troops invaded South Korea.

24 UN Police Action 1. Truman asked the UN to act against the Communist invasion of South Korea. 2. Without the Soviets in the UN sent a force led by American and South Korean Troops.

25 The Korean War 1. North Korean troops pushed the South Korean and Americans to the very tip of South Korea. 2. US / S. Korean forces held them off long enough to allow MacArthur to perform a daring invasion behind enemy lines. 3. They were then able to push the N. Koreans back all the way to the very N. of Korea.

26 China Joins the War 1. The Communist Chinese government saw the UN troops as a threat and demanded that they stop advancing. 2. After being ignored, China began a massive attack with hundreds of thousands of Chinese troops heading across the border 3. They drove UN forces back.

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29 General MacArthur Fired 1. General MacArthur demanded approval to expand the war against China. 2. Truman refused MacArthur s demands. 3. MacArthur publicly criticized the president. 4. Truman fired MacArthur 5. Truman was committed to limited war, a war fought to achieve a limited objective such as containing communism.

30 By 1951 UN forces had pushed Chinese and North Koreans back across the 38th parallel. An armistice was signed July The Korean War was an important turning point in the Cold War. 1. Instead of just using political pressure and economic aid to contain communism, the United States began a major military buildup. 2. The Korean War expanded the Cold War beyond Europe and into Asia.

31 How did President Truman view the Communist invasion of South Korea?

32 Korean War Memorial: Washington D.C.

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