Learning Goal 17: Student will be able to explain how the Cold War started.

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1 Cold War and 1950s

2 Learning Goal 17: Student will be able to explain how the Cold War started. - Western fear of Communist Expansion (Containment, Truman Doctrine, McCarthyism, Second Red Scare, HUAC, NATO) - Eastern fear of Capitalism (Warsaw Pact, Iron Curtain) - Rise of Nuclear Weapons (Arms Race, Brinkmanship, Cuban Missile Crisis) - Space Race Scale: In addition to a 3, you were to make personal and historical connections while analyzing important events and philosophies that lead to the start of the Cold War In addition to a 2, you were able to explain important events and philosophies that led to the start of the Cold War. You were able to identify key people and terms relating to the start of the Cold War. You could only partially identify key people and terms relating to the start of the Cold War.

3 Civics Text: Chapter 15- Economics and the American Economy The American Economic System - Text p What is an economy or economic system? Factors of Production You can write these down in your unit vocab list. Land (Natural Resources ) Labor( work that people do) Capital ( money, items bought with money) Goods (physical items people can buy) Services ( jobs or task people pay other people to do for them) Marx Engel

4 Civics Text: Chapter 15- Economics and the American Economy The American Economic System - Text p What are the basic differences between capitalism(free enterprise, market economy), socialism and communism (command economy)? Communism/Command Economy: 1) This type of economy was started by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engel. 2) The government or central authority decides how the factors of production, land, labor and capital (money) will be used. There is little individual choice in how to use the factors of production. Example: The government will tell the people what and how much of something to make. 3) Many command economies are found in countries that have dictatorships. People who criticize the government and how they operate can be punished. From each according to his ability, to each according to his need Marx Engel Workers of the Unite World

5 Civics Text: Chapter 15- Economics and the American Economy The American Economic System - Text p What are the basic differences between capitalism(free enterprise, market economy), socialism and communism (command economy)? Communism/ Command Economy: - All of the factors of production are owned collectively by the government. - There is little or no private ownership of property. - The government gives goods and services to people based on their needs. - People are directed by the government into certain jobs and levels of education based on the needs of the economy. - Tries to eliminate economic classes. ( Wealthy, Middle Class, Poor) - Organized religion is outlawed or discouraged.

6 Civics Text: Chapter 15- Economics and the American Economy The American Economic System - Text p Write this in the other information box on p. 4 What are the basic differences between capitalism(free enterprise, market economy), socialism and communism (command economy)? Socialism: - Wealth should be distributed equally. - Nationalization- government owns, or controls most of the important businesses and industries in the country. - The government provides public services to all those in need. Like welfare if you lose your job, health care, retirement payments. - Taxes are very high.

7 Civics Text: Chapter 15- Economics and the American Economy The American Economic System - Text p What are the basic differences between capitalism(free enterprise, market economy), socialism and communism (command economy)? Market Economy- Free Enterprise, or Capitalism: -In this type of economy private individuals decide how the factors of production (land, labor, capital) are used, and how goods and services are produced and distributed. -There is little or no government control of the economy. -It is based on competition for profits. The buyers (consumers) and sellers (producers) in an economy make the economic decisions. Their decisions determine how land, labor and capital are used in a country s economy. - Adam Smith, a Scottish philosopher, economist and writer first developed the - idea of a modern market economy. -Wealth of Nations- 1776, a book written by Adam Smith that outlined the basic economic principles of capitalism. Invisible Hand Smith

8 Civics Text: Chapter 15- Economics and the American Economy The American Economic System - Text p Write this in the other information box on p. 5 Mixed Economy Is an economy that has a combination of socialism and capitalism. The United States is a mixed economy. Example- Social Security, Medicare, regulating industries/stock market, stopping monopolies, using tax money to help large businesses if they are going to fail.

9 Civics Text: Chapter 15- Economics and the American Economy The American Economic System - Text p Write this in the other information box on p. 4 How does supply and demand influence prices of goods and services? Supply- The amount of a good or service available at a certain price. Demand- Amount of people who want to buy a good or service at a certain price. 9

10 Civics Text: Chapter 15- Economics and the American Economy The American Economic System - Text p Write this in the other information box on p. 4 How does supply and demand influence prices of goods and services? Market Price- Is the price at which the seller / producer is willing to sell their goods or services and the buyer is willing to buy them. Think of it as bartering or haggling over a price. A seller must be careful not to sell their product for less than it cost them to make, or they will take a loss and not make a profit. A buyer must be careful not to spend more money than what they have or they could go into debt. 10

11 Civics Text: Chapter 15- Economics and the American Economy The American Economic System - Text p $50.00 Market Price $40.00 Supply Price $30.00 $20.00 $10.00 Demand Quantity or Amount of a good or service 11

12 Cold War After WWII, the U.S. and U.S.S.R. emerged as the two strongest countries (superpowers). Because of economic and political differences the nations became rivals. The two never directly fought each other, but they did come to the brink of war on many occasions. The tension between the two countries would influence and dominate world events for the next 50 years.

13 Berlin Blockade and Airlift After WWII, the U.S. and U.S.S.R. began to distrust each other more than ever. At the Potsdam Conference, Stalin had promised to allow free elections in the Eastern Europe counties the Soviets had liberated from the Germans. He broke this promise and set up communist/ pro- Soviet governments in those countries. Stalin did this because he was upset because the U.S. was talking about reunifying Germany into one country. To show his unhappiness he ordered the blockaded West Berlin. In response the U.S. launched a massive airlift of supplies into West Berlin. Winston Churchill added to people s mistrust of communism when he stated that an Iron Curtain had fallen over Eastern Europe. America was afraid of communism spreading around the world and eventually to the United States.

14 Berlin Blockade and Airlift East Germany West Berlin East Berlin West Germany Berlin

15 NATO and Warsaw Pact United States created NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), as a defensive alliance for Western Europe as the communists gained control of Eastern Europe. In response to NATO, the Soviet Union created the Warsaw Pact alliance for the nations of Eastern Europe.

16 NATO and the Warsaw Pact U.S., Canada, Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain,, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey. Original members 1949 Soviet Union Albania (until 1968) Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany (until 1990) Hungary Poland Romania

17 East v West West East West (U.S., Democracies) vs. East (U.S.S.R., Communism)

18 Truman Doctrine This was President Harry Truman s main strategy to fight the Cold War. Through the Marshall Plan and other programs, the U.S. gave money and military support to help rebuild Europe after the war. To receive this aid countries had to pledge to support democracy (couldn t be Communist). President Harry S. Truman

19 Containment The U.S s policy of stopping the spread of communism. The U.S felt that if they could stop communism from spreading to other countries, Then it could be rolled back and pro-western governments (democracies) could be set up in those countries. Communists Socialists Reds Democratic Democracy Free World Capitalism

20 Fear of Communism Second Red Scare Ever since the end of WWI Americans had a fear of communism spreading to the U.S. During the 1950s the country will go through another fear of communism spreading to the U.S. and around the world. Communism

21 House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) The HUAC s role was to find communists in American society and government. Their actions sparked a panic in the country, and many people had their lives ruined simply by being accused or investigated for doing things that seemed un-american (communist). Many people were investigated and some were put on trial to spying on the U.S. during the Cold War. Julius and Ethel Rosenbergexecuted for spying on the U.S. Communism

22 McCarthyism McCarthy used American s fear of communism to gain political power. He claimed to have the names of communists working within the government. His claims were never proven. His accusations ruined the lives of many people. The word McCarthyism refers to anyone making reckless accusations against other people. In 1954, McCarthy held televised public hearings to expose communists in America. During the hearings he accused members of the U.S. military of being communists. After these hearings, McCarthy lost credibility with the American people. Senator Joseph McCarthy

23 Arms and Space Race Arms Race Under President Eisenhower, the U.S. developed a policy of Brinksmanship, which meant the U.S would go to the brink of war (nuclear war) with the Soviet Union to stop the spread of communism. This started a nuclear arms build up by both countries. Both countries developed a Hydrogen bomb by the middle of the 1950 s. The idea of Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) in some ways actually kept the U.S. and U.S.S.R from attacking each other. H-Bomb Test

24 Arms and Space Race Space Race The United States and the Soviet Union competed against each other to be the first to go into space. In 1957, The Soviet Union launched the first satellite, named Sputnik. At first the U.S. was losing the space race, but eventually caught up and passed the Russians by landing men on the Moon. This lead to many changes in America, especially in the area of education. A greater emphasis was placed on math and science after the launching of Sputnik. Sputnik

25 Spying and the U2 Incident- Cuban Missile Crisis U2 Incident Both countries spied on each other. May 1, 1960, a U-2 spy plane piloted by Francis Gary Powers was shot down over Soviet Union. The U.S. had always denied that it was spying on the Soviet Union, but now the Soviets had proof that we were. Here in the U.S., Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were tried, and executed for allegedly selling atomic bomb secrets to the Soviets. Julius and Ethel Rosenbergexecuted for spying on the U.S.

26 Spying and the U2 Incident- Cuban Missile Crisis Bay of Pigs In 1959, the island nation of Cuba became communist. Fidel Castro and Che Guevara led a revolt that overthrew the old Cuban government, which was friendly with the U.S.. Many Cubans had fled Cuba and came to the U.S. when the communist took over. Fidel Castro Che Guevara

27 Spying and the U2 Incident- Cuban Missile Crisis Bay of Pigs President Kennedy and the CIA trained and organized these Cuban exiles into an Army. The plan was to send them back to Cuba to overthrow the new communist government. The Cuban exile army landed at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba. They were supposed to be supported by the U.S. military. However, when the invasion started the U.S. didn t give the support they had promised and most of the Cuban exiles were killed or captured. The whole event was very embarrassing for the U.S. and Cuba formed a close relationship with the Soviet Union after the Bay of Pigs.

28 Spying and the U2 Incident- Cuban Missile Crisis Cuban Missile Crisis In response to the Bay of Pigs, the Soviet Union placed nuclear missiles in Cuba to help protect them from a another U.S. invasion. The U.S. responded with a naval blockaded around Cuba to stop any more ships from reaching Cuba. The U.S. threatened nuclear war if the Soviets did not remove the missiles. Soviet missile sites in Cuba

29 Spying and the U2 Incident- Cuban Missile Crisis Cuban Missile Crisis The Soviets backed down and took the missiles out of Cuba, but in response completed the construction of the Berlin Wall in Germany as a way to stop people from East Berlin from escaping into West Berlin. The U.S. also agreed to remove its nuclear missile out of Turkey. This event brought the U.S. and Soviet Union the closest they ever came to nuclear war. Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev and President Kennedy Berlin Wall being constructed

30 Learning Goal 18: Students will be able to explain how America became involved in the Korean War. - Containment (Truman Doctrine) - Division of Korea after WWII (38 th Parallel) - UN Police action in Korea - Chinese Involvement Scale: In addition to a 3 student was able to explain and analyze how America became involved in the Korean War. Student was able to explain how America became involved in the Korean War. Student was able to identify how America became involved in the Korean War. Student was able to partially identify how America became involved in the Korean War.

31 Events leading to the start of the Korean War After WWII, Korea was divided into two countries at the 38 th Parallel line(38 o N Latitude). North Korea became a communist country with the support of China and the Soviet Union. South Korea had a noncommunist government and was supported by the United States. In June 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea. President Truman asked for the United Nations to send a peace keeping force into Korea to stop the fighting. The U.S. made up the biggest part of the U.N. forces. Official the U.S. never declares war, but instead enters the conflict as a policing force under the United Nation with the goal of stopping North Korea s aggression. Korean War Memorial, Washington DC

32 Events leading to the start of the Korean War

33 China s involvement in the war The U.N. forces under the command of General Douglas MacArthur were able to push the North Koreans back across the 38 th Parallel. MacArthur continued to advanced deeper into North Korea. At this point China became alarmed and warned that if U.N. forces continued to move closer to their border they would enter the war on the side of North Korea. The U.N. forces did not withdraw and China entered the war. MacArthur wanted to attack China directly, but President Truman wouldn t allow him for fear that Korea would grow into a larger conflict. Truman eventually replaces MacArthur. Truman and MacArthur

34 Outcomes of the Korean War A cease fire went into effect on July 27, President Eisenhower brought the war to an end as he had promised in his election campaign. The war ended in a stalemate. The border between North and South Korea remained at the 38 th Parallel (DMZ- Demilitarized Zone). Many Americans felt frustrated by the indecisive war. Over 33,000 American soldiers were killed in the war, with another 103,000 being wounded.

35 Learning Goal 19: Student will be able to explain the social, economic, technological, medical and political changes that occurred in post WWII America. - Transportation (Interstate highway system) - Communication (Television) - Technology (computers, space travel) - Medical (cure for polio) - Entertainment (Rock n Roll, television) - Growth of suburbs/ population - Conformity - Fear of communism and nuclear war (Red Scare, fear of spying) Scale: In addition to a 3 student is able to explain and analyze the social, economic, technological, medical and political changes that occurred in post WWII America. Student is able to explain the social, economic, technological, medical and political changes that occurred in post WWII America. Student is able to identify the social, economic, technological, medical and political changes that occurred in post WWII America. Student is able to partially identify the social, economic, technological, medical and political changes that occurred in post WWII America.

36 Life in America after WWII and during the 1950s Text p Baby Boom After WWII, many people wanted to get back to their normal lives. As a result many couples wanted to start families. There was a large growth in the population from This period of time became know as a the Baby Boom. About 50 million babies are born during this time.

37 Life in America after WWII and during the 1950s Text p Growth of Suburbs The strong economy and the surge in birth rates (baby boom) led to more people wanting a house of their own. This led to the building of affordable homes in-between the country and city (suburbs). The suburbs allowed many Americans to own a home for the first time. For the first time since before the Civil War more people were moving to the South and West (Sun Belt) rather than the East and North.

38 Conformity Life in America after WWII and during the 1950s Text p The red scare and the fear of being labeled as different or un- American put a great deal of pressure on people to conform with the rest of society. It went beyond just dressing or having a similar look. People became concerned that they held similar idea and values to those around them. This way they would not stand out from the rest of society.

39 Life in America after WWII and during the 1950s Text p Conformity Some Americans were upset about the amount of conformity they saw in society, and openly challenged the status quo. One such group became known as beatniks. Novelist Jack Kerouac is one of several people credited with starting the beatnik movement during the 1950s. Jack Kerouac

40 Life in America after WWII and during the 1950s Text p Economic Changes After WWII, industries switched from making military equipment to consumer goods. The America economy expanded, and was stronger than ever. The hard economic times of the Great Depression ( ) were finally over. The 1950s, in general, can be characterized as a period of economic prosperity, the growth of the middle-class, and consumerism (people buying goods and services). More people could afford luxury goods, like cars and appliances.

41 Role of Women Life in America after WWII and during the 1950s Text p Women were encouraged or forced to give up their jobs to returning servicemen after the war. They were encouraged to have a more domestic lifestyle, or work at traditional female occupations.

42 African Americans Life in America after WWII and during the 1950s Text p African Americans had hoped that after the war discrimination and segregation would end in the workforce and throughout America society, but it did not. Only in the military did segregation end. Africa-Americans continued to lag behind economically and didn t fully enjoy the prosperity of the 1950s.

43 Poor in America Life in America after WWII and during the 1950s Text p Even though the 1950s can be seen a prosperous time in American history, there was still large amounts of poverty. This was especially true in the cities. As wealthier and middle class families moved to the suburbs, the poor were left to live in urban (cities) areas. The poor couldn t buy the consumer goods, buy a home or take advantage of the economic prosperity created after WWII.

44 Life in America after WWII and during the 1950s Text p Entertainment Rock n Roll and television were just starting to grow in popularity. Both became major industries during the 50s.

45 Life in America after WWII and during the 1950s Text p Medical and Technological Changes Polio Vaccine- Polio had been a major disease inflicting tens of thousands of people in America prior to WWII. Scientists and doctors develop a vaccine to prevent people from getting polio. Interstate Highway System- President Eisenhower directs the Building of interstate highways connecting the entire country. Computers- First mainframe computers are developed. The space race with the Soviet Union advanced the use of computers. Air Conditioning- allows people to move to the Sun Belt states in the south and west. Dr. Jonas Salk- Polio Vaccine

46 Fear of Communism and Nuclear War Life in America after WWII and during the 1950s Text p Despite all of the positive aspects of life in post-war America there was still a great deal of fear and anxiety created because of the Cold War with the Soviet Union. McCarthyism, the Red Scare, and the Rosenberg spy case led many Americans to assume nuclear war was coming and they must prepare for it.

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