The Cold War An overview

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1 The Cold War An overview

2 I m takin you down, Freedom!! You and all your Western Friends! Neeeiiigggghhhh!! We re going to stamp you out, you and all your Commie cronies!

3 What is the Cold War? A state of political tension and military rivalry between nations that stops short of full-scale war. However, 50 million people died in proxy wars across the globe How is a Cold War different from other wars we have studied this trimester?

4 Why was there a Cold War? Which two countries were involved in the Cold War and why? What was the ultimate goal of the Cold War?

5 Prior to the end of WWII The Big 3 (remember who they are?) met at the Yalta and Potsdam conferences.

6 What did they want From the Yalta Conference? The USSR wanted pro-soviet governments established along the border of the Soviet Union The U.S. loved the idea of self-determination; in other words he wanted the countries of Europe to be able to chose which democratic government they wanted based on free elections.

7 What actually came out of the Yalta Conference Both the USSR and the U.S. agreed that the USSR would aid the U.S. in a war against Japan (This agreement occurred prior to the decision to drop the atomic bomb) Both countries also agreed upon the creation of the United Nations The idea to split Germany into four zones which would be governed by the military forces of the U.S., Great Britain, France and the USSR also came about at the Yalta Conference

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9 The Potsdam Conference The Big 3 had changed, Roosevelt had died and Harry Truman had replaced him. The conference started under a cloud of mistrust. Truman went in demanding free elections and Stalin came out demanding the presence of pro-communist governments in Europe which would not be formed by allowing free elections.

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11 The War is over! Shortly after the Potsdam conference Mussolini is killed and Hitler kills himself. Germany surrenders. Although the war in the European Theatre is now over the mistrust between the USSR and the U.S. is just beginning to grow

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13 After World War II It was time for a new world order The fight would be between the United States and the Soviet Union Democracy vs. Communism Popular sovereignty vs. united workers

14 The Iron Curtain Has Fallen Churchill gives the speech in 1946 Find more on page 836

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16 Disagreement The USSR believed They deserved land in Eastern Europe due to the destruction of WWII, and to balance US influence in Western Europe Felt the US was being deceptive, as they had kept the A-bomb a secret Keep Germany weak The United States believed other democracies would be more apt to trade with us communism should be contained we should financially support countries that need it so they don t turn communist (Truman Doctrine, 47) we should help all countries that need it (Marshall plan, 48) That we should stop any aggressive nation

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18 The Arms and Space Race In 1949 the USSR set off its first atomic bomb. By the early 1950 s both the USSR and the U.S. had intercontinental ballistic missiles, now both countries were capable of sending bombs anywhere. The U.S. and the USSR continued to build up their arsenals of weapons including atomic bombs. They both thought that their large arsenals would prevent war from occurring. Space Race thanks to them we got a man on the moon! The Space Race began when the USSR launched its first human made space satellite, Sputnik I into space. Americans feared Sputnik I and the idea behind it. They thought that the USSR had a massive lead in building missiles. They feared a missile gap had developed between the USSR and the U.S.

19 Arms Race Space Race

20 I guess we made it after all

21 Space Race vid clip (7 mins) CIE

22 Out of the Cold War Came the Iron Curtain speech, The Truman Doctrine, The National Security Act of 1947, The Marshall Plan, The Containment Policy, and the changing role of women in Communist Countries. Take a few minutes with a partner to finish the first page of your Cold War Timeline.

23 New Organizations (alliances) were formed NATO stands for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. NATO was formed in 1949 when Belgium, Luxembourg, France, the Netherlands, Great Britain, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal and Iceland signed a treaty with the U.S. and Canada. All powers agreed to provide mutual help if any one of them was attacked. Later West Germany, Turkey and Greece also joined. How do you think the USSR felt about NATO?

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25 Communism spreads-1949 Remember the last thing we talked about in China? The Communists had taken control. After WWII civil war broke out in China again, Communists had again taken control of Northern China under the leadership of Mao Zedong. The United States supported the Chiang Kai-shek (anti-communist) government in Southern and Central China. By 1949 Mao Zedong and his armies had defeated the Nationalists and Chiang and his people fled to Taiwan.

26 1949 was the same year the USSR tested its first atomic weapon the West grew more fearful.

27 Korean War USSR: Fought to help the North Koreans spread communism to the South US: Fought to keep communism out of the South 1 st war involving the UN Truman was against the war spreading to China, fired McArthur for his aggressive plans! In the end, no land was gained on either side (38 th parallel)

28 Show Korean War clip (U/S 8 min.)

29 The Warsaw Pact In 1955 the Soviet Union joined with Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania in a formal military alliance called the Warsaw Pact. After the Warsaw Pact was created Europe was once again divided into hostile alliance systems. MAIN ANYONE???

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32 Can you see the iron curtain?

33 Enter Nikita Khrushchev Stalin dies..and wants to be remembered

34 Nikita Khrushchev Khrushchev took power of the USSR in De-Stalinization (no more totalitarianism or genocide) When Khrushchev took over one of the biggest problems within the USSR was the issue of East Germans escaping into West Germany through West Berlin. Khrushchev made a decision build a wall (not not for a few more years)

35 When Germany was divided Berlin was also divided amongst the four big nations (France, Great Britain, America, and the USSR). West Berlin was given aid by the Western countries while East Berlin was povertystricken West Berlin East Berlin

36 Sputnik I was the first human satellite put into orbit. Def of a satellite: a body that revolves around a planet; a moon. On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched a basketball-sized satellite called (Sputnik 1), and a second Soviet satellite (Sputnik II) carrying a living dog (named Laika) soon followed. Sputnik I

37 China s Great Leap Forward When Communists took control of China Mao Zedong took land from wealthy land holders and gave a lot of it back to poor peasants. Most private farmland was collectivized (remember what that means?) and most industry and commerce was nationalized-he wanted to modernize quickly!!. When food production did not increase people did not move into working in industry.

38 Chairman Mao

39 Mao Zedong decided to start a new program- The Great Leap Forward in Under this program he took existing collectivized farms normally the size of a village and were combined into vast communes. Each commune contained more than 30,000 people who lived and worked together. Mao hoped that the Great Leap Forward would enable China to become a classless society. The government slogan promised the following: Hard work for a few years, happiness for a thousand.

40 The actual outcome of the GLF The Great Leap Forward was actually a disaster. Bad weather and peasants hatred of the new system drove food production down. As a result almost 15 million starved to death. The government eventually started to break the communes down to return them to collectivized farms and some private plots.

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44 Great Leap Forward Mao orders a return to the countryside and the creation of small rural factories in a push to drive through industrialization more quickly. Between l958-61, rural communes were encouraged to produce industrial products like steel and iron to the neglect of agricultural production. The result was widespread famine, with per capita grain consumption falling by 22% and millions of deaths.

45 See video: GLF OfW60&feature=PlayList&p=5C5AF C6A&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL &index=18 (4 minutes)

46 The Berlin Wall The Berlin Wall was built by Nikita Khrushchev, his goal in building the wall was to keep people from escaping East Germany. The wall was started in 1961separating East and West Berlin. The wall eventually was guarded by barbed wire, floodlights, machine-gun towers, minefields, and vicious dog patrols. Answer #3 map Q on the back-why did East Berliners try to escape to the West? Who controlled the West?

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49 The Cuban Missile Crisis We will now watch a clip about the Cuban Missile Crisis. Fill in the Soviet and the U.S. side of your timeline as you watch.

50 It s Venn diagram time Oh YEAH! You will be paired with 2 other people. In your group you will need to do 2 things. 1- Complete the Venn diagram on the back of your Korean/Vietnam War assignment 2- Complete the boxes for the Vietnam War (Soviet and U.S. boxes including the Domino Theory.)

51 Civil Rights Movements in the U.S. The Civil Rights movement started early with the comings of WWII when African Americans moved North to help work in industry. When JFK was assassinated and Lyndon Johnson took over- one of his passions was the civil rights movement or equal rights for African Americans. MLK Jr. called for racial equality-passive disobedience (Gandhi)

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53 Civil Rights continued The Civil Rights Act of 1964 enabled the United States to end segregation and discrimination in the workplace and all public places. The Voting Rights Act followed the following year and made it easier for African Americans to vote in southern states.

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55 Time to finish it up You have the next few minutes to finish up 1950s-1960s: Revolts against Communism in Eastern Europe, and the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (China).

56 1950s-1960s: Revolts against Communism in Eastern Europe Communism did not stick in E. Europe They felt exploited (used) by the USSR, and began to fight back after Stalin s death Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary began to fight for reform and independence! USSR resisted this new movement

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58 An example In Hungary, Imre Nagy brought some new freedoms to the people Tried to leave the USSR Soviet armies marched into Budapest (the capital) Nagy later executed The lesson? Do not defy the USSR!

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60 1966 The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China When the GLF failed, Mao still wanted a classless society Needed a permanent revolution CR was meant to create a new working class culture (proletarian) Mao s thoughts, Little Red Book Red Guards-destroyed all things religious and foreign (remember Chinese nationalism???) Red traffic lights now- GO! instead of green People began to resist the movement it ended in 1976

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63 Predictions: What do you predict the Cold War will be like in the 1970s and 1980s? Is it slowing down or speeding up?

64 Map time! Finish the back page of your Cold War timeline now. This is you guys, at the thought of finishing your maps!

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