The Cold War. Chap. 18, 19

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1 The Cold War Chap. 18, 19

2 Cold War Political and economic conflict between U.S. and USSR Not fought on battlefield

3 U.S. Vs. USSR Democracy- free elections private ownership Free market former ally W/ Hitler promised free elections Communism-Totalitarian regime state ownership of property state controlled economy Capitalism- Suspicions- Communism- Suspicions- slow to attack Germany in Europe Kept atomic bomb secret

4 United Nations Goal- symbol of world peace Reality- 2 superpowers competing for influence over smaller countries

5 Potsdam Conference US Goals New world order- self determination Gain access to raw materials for new markets Rebuild governments to ensure stability and create new markets Reunite Germany- Secure if Germany productive USSR Goals Encourage Communism Rebuild economy with Eastern European equip. and raw materials Control East to balance US influence in West Keep Germany divided and weak- no threat

6 The Iron Curtain Falls Stalin installs communist government in East Satellite Nations- countries dominated by USSR Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Poland

7

8 US. Policy U.S. Foreign Policy Shift Containment Prevent the spread of communism

9 U.S. Actions taken against Communism Truman Doctrine- policy to support countries who resist communism Action taken- $400 million Aid to Turkey and Greece Result- reduced risk of communist take over Marshall Plan Provided aid to any country who needed it Action- $12.5 Billion relief aid Result- Improved nutrition, Industrial growth, Communist threat removed

10 What to do with Germany U.S., France, Great Britain Reunified occupation zones into one country Berlin had been divided into Zones Soviets keep divided No written agreement to allow access to Berlin 2.1 million residents trapped with little food

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12 Berlin Airlift U.S. and British military started dropping supplies by airplane Lasted 327 days Result boosted U.S. prestige around world USSR- May 1949 Blockade lifted West Germany/East Germany created

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14 North Atlantic Treaty Organization- April 4, 1949 Defensive military alliance 1st time US joined a peacetime alliance

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16

17 Civil War in China Nationalists Leader: Chiang Kaishek Ruled South and Eastern China Relied on aid from U.S. Inflation and failing economy Corrupt and inefficient government

18 Civil War in China Communists Leader: Mao Zedong Ruled Northern China Relied on financial aid from USSR Promised land reform to peasants Highly motivated leadership

19 U.S. supported Nationalist Anti Communist Sent $2 billion in military equip. Nationalists fled to Taiwan Mao established People s Republic of China US refused to accept as true government

20 The Korean War Part of Japan from th paralleldividing line of surrender North of parallelsurrendered to USSR South of parallelsurrendered to US

21 Surprise attack June 25, 1950 Maps from

22 Korean War South Korea asks for UN help UN Security council votes to help USSR Boycotting UN UN sends 520,000 troops Led by MacArthur

23 Counter offensive- Sept. Maps from

24 MacArthur Vs Truman Macarthur Promoted full-scale war with China Tried to go over Truman s head Truman fired Macarthur Heroes welcome Truman administration made case against war

25 Nov Chinese enter war Maps from

26 End of Korean War June 23, 1951 USSR suggested cease-fire Agreement made Battle line became border Demilitarized zone between sides Argued over Prisoner exchange for 2 more years War ends June 27, 1953 Costs of Korean War Two countries- no winner $67 Billion 54,000 American lives

27 Cold War at Home Loyalty Review Board Set up to investigate government employees House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) Investigated possible communists Film industry targeted- Blacklist- list of people condemned for Communist background

28 Spies Alger Hiss- passed government documents USSR Convicted of lying about spying Richard Nixon tried case

29 Spies The Rosenberg s Sept. 3, 1949 Soviet Atomic bomb explosion Accused of helping gain info st civilians executed for espionage

30 Joseph McCarthy Republican Senator from Wisconsin Claimed he had lists of Communist in State dept. Downfall Accused US Army of involvement with communists died of alcoholism

31 McCarthyism Unsupported accusations made against suspected communists

32 Hydrogen Bomb U.S. Nov. 1, 1952 Tested 1 st H-Bomb USSR- Aug US policy of 1950 s Brinkmanship- to go to the edge of all out war

33 CIA activities Carried out secret operations to weaken or overthrow unfriendly governments Iran, Guatemala

34 The Warsaw Pact 1953-Stalin s death brought better relations West Germany allowed to rearm and join NATO Military Alliance formed by Soviets with seven eastern European countries

35

36 Geneva Summit 1955 Eisenhower met with new Soviet leaders Proposed open skies USSR rejected proposal

37 Nikita Krushchev Believed communism would triumph peacefully Coexistence with US Economic and scientific competition

38 Hungarian Uprising Revolt against communism Wanted democratic government New government Promised free elections Denounced Warsaw Pact Demanded Soviet troops leave Hungary Soviets crushed revolt No help from U.S. or UN

39 The Space Race Oct. 4, 1957 Sputnik- 1 st satellite U.S. allocated money to NASA 1 st attempt failed Jan. 31, st successful launch

40 U-2 incident U.S. flying secret high altitude flights over USSR Concerns CIA convinced Ike for 1 last flight May 1, 1960 Francis Gary Powers- pilot Shot down and spent 10 years in prison Soviets had proof of spying Eisenhower admitted but wouldn t apologize Summit planned for May 15 th cancelled

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