1 Cold War Conflicts The Cold War and the danger of nuclear war define international affairs, especially after the Korean War. Fear of communism in the U.S. leads to accusations against innocent citizens. British prime minister Winston Churchill, U.S. president Harry S. Truman, and Soviet premier and supreme commander Joseph Stalin pose during their meeting at the Potsdam Conference in Germany (July 1945).
2 Cold War Conflicts SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 Origins of the Cold War The Cold War Heats Up The Cold War at Home Two Nations Live on the Edge
3 Section 1 Origins of the Cold War The United States and the Soviet Union emerge from World War II as two superpowers with vastly different political and economic systems.
4 1 Origins of the Cold War Former Allies Clash U.S.-Soviet Relations U.S., U.S.S.R. have very different economic, political systems U.S. suspicious of Stalin because he had been Hitler s ally Stalin resents that U.S. delayed attacking Germany and hid atom bomb The United Nations 1945, United Nations established as new peacekeeping body UN becomes arena where U.S., U.S.S.R. compete Continued...
5 1 continued Former Allies Clash Truman Becomes President Harry S. Truman succeeds FDR as president As vice-president, Truman was not included in policy decisions - was not told about atom bomb The Potsdam Conference July 1945 conference with U.S., Great Britain, Soviet Union Stalin does not allow free, multiparty elections in Poland - bans democratic parties
6 1 Tension Mounts Bargaining at Potsdam Truman becomes convinced that U.S., Soviet aims deeply at odds Soviets want reparations from Germany; Truman objects Agree to take reparations mainly from own occupation zones U.S. emerges from war as great economic power - wants Eastern European raw materials, markets Continued...
7 1 continued Tension Mounts Soviets Tighten Their Grip on Eastern Europe Soviet Union also has great economic, military strength Unlike U.S., Soviet Union suffered heavy devastation on own soil Installs communist rule in satellite nations, countries it dominates 1946, Stalin announces war between communism, capitalism inevitable United States Establishes a Policy of Containment U.S. policy of containment measures to prevent spread of communism Churchill describes division of Europe as iron curtain Interactive
8 1 Cold War in Europe The Truman Doctrine Cold War conflict between U.S., U.S.S.R. - neither nation directly confronts the other on battlefield Truman Doctrine support against armed minorities, outsiders U.S. replaces British aid to Greece, Turkey; reduce communist threat The Marshall Plan 1947, Sec. of State George Marshall proposes aid to nations in need Marshall Plan revives 16 nations; Communist parties less appealing Image
9 1 Superpowers Struggle over Germany The Berlin Airlift 1948, Stalin closes highway, rail routes into West Berlin Berlin airlift Britain, U.S. fly food, supplies into West Berlin 1949, Stalin lifts blockade Federal Republic of Germany, German Democratic Republic form The NATO Alliance Fear of Soviets leads to North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) European nations, U.S., Canada pledge mutual military support Map
10 Section 2 The Cold War Heats Up After World War II, China becomes a communist nation and Korea is split into a communist north and a democratic south.
11 2 The Cold War Heats Up China Becomes a Communist Country Nationalists Versus Communists Chinese Communists battle nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek U.S. supports Chiang, but his government is inefficient, corrupt Communists, led by Mao Zedong, work to get peasant support Peasants flock to Red Army; by 1945, communists control north China Image Continued...
12 2 continued China Becomes a Communist Country Renewed Civil War , U.S. sends military aid to Nationalists to oppose communism 1949, Nationalists flee to island of Taiwan Communists establish People s Republic of China in mainland U.S. does not recognize Communist Chinese government America Reacts to Communist Takeover U.S. public stunned by Communist takeover Conservatives blame Truman for not sending enough aid
13 2 The Korean War A Divided Country 38 th parallel (38º N latitude) divides Japanese surrender in Korea North of 38 th parallel surrenders to U.S.S.R.; south to U.S. Republic of Korea, Democratic People s Republic of Korea founded North Korea Attacks South Korea 1950, North Korea invades South, begins Korean War South Korea calls on UN to stop invasion; Security Council approves MacArthur put in command of South Korean, U.S., other forces Interactive
14 2 The United States Fights in Korea MacArthur s Counterattack North Korea drives south, captures Seoul UN, South Korean troops forced into small defensive zone MacArthur attacks North Koreans from 2 sides, pushes into north The Chinese Fight Back China sends troops to help North Korea; push south, capture Seoul Fighting continues for 2 more years Continued...
15 2 continued The United States Fights in Korea MacArthur Recommends Attacking China MacArthur calls for war with China; Truman rejects request Soviet Union, China have mutual assistance pact UN, South Korea retake Seoul, advance north to 38 th parallel MacArthur Versus Truman MacArthur continues to push for invasion of China; Truman fires him Public outraged over hero s dismissal Congressional committee investigation concludes Truman right Continued...
16 2 continued The United States Fights in Korea Settling for Stalemate 1951, Soviet Union suggests cease-fire 1953 armistice: Korea still divided; demilitarized zone established Lack of success, high human, financial costs help elect Eisenhower
17 Section 3 The Cold War at Home During the late 1940s and early 1950s, fear of communism leads to reckless charges against innocent citizens.
18 3 The Cold War at Home Fear of Communist Influence American Sentiments Communist takeover of Eastern Europe, China fuel fear of its spread 100,000 in U.S. Communist Party; some fear may be loyal to U.S.S.R. Loyalty Review Board Truman accused of being soft on Communism Sets up Federal Employee Loyalty Program to investigate employees loyalty boards investigate 3.2 million, dismiss 212 Continued...
19 3 continued Fear of Communist Influence The House Un-American Activities Committee House Un-American Activities Committee investigates Communist ties Investigates Communist influence in movie industry Hollywood Ten refuse to testify, sent to prison Hollywood blacklist people with Communist ties, cannot get work The McCarran Act Act unlawful to plan action that might lead to totalitarianism Truman vetoes, says violates free thought; Congress overrides veto
20 3 Spy Cases Stun the Nation Alger Hiss Alger Hiss accused of spying for Soviet Union; convicted of perjury Congressman Richard Nixon gains fame for pursuing charges The Rosenbergs 1949, Soviets explode atomic bomb sooner than expected Physicist Klaus Fuchs admits giving information about U.S. bomb Ethel, Julius Rosenberg, minor Communist Party activists, implicated Rosenbergs sentenced to death; Supreme Court upholds conviction Image
21 3 McCarthy Launches His Witch Hunt McCarthy s Tactics Senator Joseph McCarthy a strong anti- Communist activist Ineffective legislator; needs issue to win reelection McCarthyism attacking suspected Communists without evidence McCarthy claims Communists in State Department Few Republicans speak out; think he has winning strategy for 1952 Continued...
22 3 continued McCarthy Launches His Witch Hunt McCarthy s Downfall 1954, McCarthy accuses members of U.S. Army Televised hearings show him bullying witnesses Loses public support; Senate condemns him for improper conduct Other Anti-Communist Measures States, towns forbid speech favoring violent overthrow of government Millions forced to take loyalty oaths, are investigated People become afraid to speak out on public issues Image
23 Section 4 Two Nations Live on the Edge During the 1950s, the United States and the Soviet Union come to the brink of nuclear war.
24 4 Two Nations Live on the Edge Brinkmanship Rules U.S. Policy Race for the H-Bomb H-bomb hydrogen bomb nuclear weapon more powerful than atom bomb 1952, U.S. explodes first H-bomb; 1953, Soviets explode one The Policy of Brinkmanship John Foster Dulles, secretary of state under Dwight D. Eisenhower Dulles proposes brinkmanship policy: - willingness to risk nuclear war to prevent spread of communism Nuclear threat unlike any before: millions can die; nation prepares
25 4 The Cold War Spreads Around the World Covert Actions in the Middle East and Latin America Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) uses spies to gather information CIA helps oust Iranian prime minister, reinstate Shah CIA helps depose Guatemala s president; army leader becomes dictator The Warsaw Pact U.S.-Soviet relations thaw after Stalin s death in 1953 West Germany s entry into NATO scares Soviets Form Warsaw Pact military alliance with 7 Eastern European countries Continued... Map
26 4 continued The Cold War Spreads Around the World A Summit in Geneva Eisenhower meets Soviets in Geneva, proposes open skies policy Soviets reject proposal; spirit of Geneva seen as step to peace The Suez War Gamal Abdel-Nasser plays U.S. against Soviets over Aswan Dam Dulles withdraws loan offer; Nasser nationalizes Suez Canal Israel, Britain, France send troops; UN intervenes Fighting stops; Egypt keeps canal; others withdraw Continued...
27 4 continued The Cold War Spreads Around the World The Eisenhower Doctrine Soviet prestige in Middle East rises because of support for Egypt Eisenhower Doctrine U.S. will defend Middle East against communists The Hungarian Uprising 1956, Hungarians revolt, call for democratic government Imre Nagy, Communist leader, forms government, promises elections Soviet army fights Hungarians in streets; overthrow Nagy U.S. does not help Soviet satellite; Soviets veto action by UN Image
28 4 The Cold War Takes to the Skies A New Soviet Leader Nikita Khrushchev emerges as new Soviet leader; favors: - peaceful coexistence and economic, scientific competition The Space Race October 1957, Soviets launch Sputnik, first artificial satellite Shocked Americans pour money into own space program Chart Continued...
29 4 continued The Cold War Takes to the Skies A U-2 Is Shot Down CIA makes secret high-altitude flights with U-2 to spy on Soviets Eisenhower wants flights discontinued before Krushchev summit Francis Gary Powers shot down on last flight over Soviet territory Renewed Confrontation Eisenhower first denies, then concedes U-2 was spying Agrees to stop flights, refuses to apologize as Khrushchev demands U-2 incident renews tension between superpowers; summit cancelled
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