Cold War. Unit EQ: How did social, economic, and political events influence the US during the Cold War era?

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1 Cold War Unit EQ: How did social, economic, and political events influence the US during the Cold War era?

2 Yalta Conference The Yalta Conference was held towards the end of World War II. During this time many decisions were made: The dividing up of Germany The formation of the United Nations German war reparations The entry of Soviet forces into the Far-Eastern front (Japan) The final, and most difficult issue, the future of Poland

3 Europe and Asia After the War Cities were left in ruins. Many people were left homeless and without adequate food or clothing. US wanted to help them recover. Japan adopted a democratic government and became the United States ally. In February 1945, Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill met at the Yalta Conference to determine what would be best for Europe. Stalin demanded control of the countries on Russia s borders. US disagreed. Roosevelt eventually gave Stalin control of those countries to keep negotiations going. Korea was divided to rid it of Japanese forces. Soviet Union controlled much of Eastern and Central Europe (eastern Germany, Finland, Poland). Soviet Union and the United States became superpowers but with two very different ideas of how government should work.

4 Continuing Aid US wanted to show kindness to those that were suffering and in need. US wanted to assist in western European countries in becoming strong against a new threat in the east the Soviet Union. Secretary of State, George C. Marshall, suggested the US provide funds, food, and materials to help the countries rebuild. This became known as the Marshall Plan. It gave $13 billion for European recovery and helped promote democracy. Aid was also given to Japan and other Asian countries.

5 The Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan offered huge sums of money to help the economies of Europe rebuild after World War II, and encouraged prosperity to hopefully reject the appeal of Communism. The Soviet Union (USSR) prevented Eastern European countries from receiving American money.

6 The Truman Doctrine Truman had been horrified at the prewar Allied policy of appeasement and was determined to stand up to any Soviet intimidation. The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA would support free peoples who are resisting subjugation (oppression) by armed minorities or by outside pressures. Triggered by British inability to hold the line in Greece, it was followed by aid to Greece and Turkey, and also money to help capitalists to stop communists in Italy and France. It signalled the end of isolationist policies.

7 Germany is Divided Among the Allies At the end of WWII, Germany was split 4 ways each of the Allied Powers received a certain section of the country France Great Britain United States Soviet Union Each section was governed by the occupying country

8 Iron Curtain A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West.

9 Even Further Division Within the Soviet-held section of Germany was Berlin (the capital city). The Allied Powers agreed to divide Berlin into 4 sections France Great Britain United States - Soviet Union

10 Improve your knowledge The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.

11 Berlin Wall

12 The Berlin Airlift Soviet Union controlled East Germany. June 1948 Soviets stopped ALL traffic into Western Berlin leaving the people in desperation. Americans and British did not want to leave West Berliners to starve and freeze. Airplanes flew in food and fuel. (Airplanes took off every 3 minutes.) Blockade was lifted in May Traffic could now move through military checkpoints, but the two sides remained closed off from one another.

13 A New Kind of War Soviet Union wanted to spread communism. Backed communist governments in both China and North Korea. US was committed to stopping the spread of communism. The long, bitter struggle b/w these two very different ideologies became know as the Cold War. Fought with words, money, and weapons (no shots were fired). Propaganda a systematic effort to spread opinions or beliefs Soviet Union used it to tell their people that America was poor and that democracy did not work. Example used a picture of Americans lined up for Super Bowl tickets to try and convince the Soviet people that they were lined up for food Soviet government parades to show off their military.

14 A World Divided The world became divided into the Free World and the Communist World. Nations that did not fit into one of these two groups were often called Third World countries. The Soviet Union often tried to take over these countries. Stalin was responsible for more deaths than Hitler because citizens who expressed their ideas openly were arrested, imprisoned, or killed. US gave personal rights to its citizens and worried that if communism spread, personal rights would no longer exist.

15 The Iron Curtain It s not an actual curtain! It describes the closing off of the Soviet Union. Soviet controlled nations in Eastern & Central Europe were controlled by the government in Moscow. Most citizens who lived in these countries were not allowed to travel beyond their own borders or to communicate with anyone who lived on the outside. The US made alliances with the nations of Western Europe. This alliance became known as NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

16 Goals of Each Side Soviet Union *spread communism United States *contain the spread of communism **The US wanted to encourage democratic governments/capitalism throughout the world that were based on personal freedoms and a free enterprise system.

17 Two Sides of the Cold War

18 Red Scare = McCarthyism Americans feared communism and people who supported Senator Joseph McCarthy announced that communists were living and working in the US with the intent to overthrow the US government. Many American citizens were investigated and questioned about their political beliefs

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