Early Cold War

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1 Early Cold War

2 Capitalism vs. Communism Capitalism Communism Free-Market Economy Upper, Middle and Working Class North Atlantic Treaty Organization Government Controlled Economy Classless Society Warsaw Pact United States Soviet Union

3 Yalta Conference Poland to hold free elections Declaration of a Liberated Europe- "the right of all people to chose the form of government under which they live." Allied Powers US, Britain, Russia Axis Powers Germany, Italy, Japan Big Three

4 Satellite Nations "...an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent." -Winston Churchill

5 One cannot forget the following fact: the Germans carried out an invasion of the U.S.S.R. through Finland, Poland, Rumania, Bulgaria, and Hungary...One can ask, therefore, what can be surprising in the fact that the Soviet Union, in a desire to ensure its security for the future, tries to achieve that these countries should have governments whose relations to the Soviet Union are loyal? - Joseph Stalin

6 Division of Germany Soviet Union- wants heavy reparations from Germany U.S. and Britain- want to rebuild Germany

7 Policy of Containment George Keenen "Long Telegram" If the U.S. could quarantine/ contain communism it could defeat it.

8 Truman Doctrine "The policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures." Greece and Turkey Marshall Plan Korean War 400 million dollars without military forces 13 billion dollars over 4 years to rebuild Europe 3 year war fought to prevent North Korea from invading capitalist South Korea

9 The Marshall Plan U.S. Aid (in Millions) Great Britain 2,826 France 2,445 Italy 1,316 West Germany 1,297 Holland

10 Berlin Airlift, Stalin closed all roads and railways into West Berlin in an attempt to control all of Berlin. Truman responds by flying food and supplies for 327 days- 277,000 flights delivered 2.3 million tons of supplies

11 NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Warsaw Pact

12 U.S. Defense Budget

13 1949- U.S. loses Ground in Cold War Communist forces led by Mao Zedong take control of China Soviet Union gets Atomic Bomb capability Mao Zedong

14 Korean War, North Korea invades South Korea US Intervenes MacArthur pushes NK back past 38th Attempting to unite Korea as one Communist Nation As they saw North Korean aggression as a test of containment China enters war as MacArthur pushes to Yalu River 38th Parallel Truman fires MacArthur "There is no substitute for victory" President Eisenhower ends war Eisenhower ends long costly war

15 36,400 Americans killed in Korean War

16 Eisenhower's "New Look" Massive Retaliation "Brinksmanship" Threaten to use nuclear weapons to prevent communism from spreading Arms build up "More bang for the buck" CIA- Central Intelligence Agency Eisenhower Doctrine Use of covert action against spread of Communism (Latin America) Promised to support Mid Easr from Communism President Eisenhower (R)

17 CIA, Guatemala Jacobo Arbenz Land Reform (Redistribution) United Fruit Company (American owned) Guatemala purchased arms Democratically elected in 1961 begins land reform initiative 2% owned 70% of land and were using just 12% 100,000 families given land Owned 42% of arable land Were paid $3 per acre but wanted $75 From Communist Czechoslovakia CIA- Coup d'état CIA trains and arms rebel army to overthrow Arbenz

18 The American Vision, p 800

19 The Americans, p 624

20 Space Race 1957 Soviets launch Sputnik into space 1958 U.S. begins N.A.S.A U.S. puts man a on the moon Apollo Program- Spends 24 Billion Neil Armstrongfirst man on the moon

21 The Second Red Scare Height of WWII 80,000 Americans considered claimed membership in thr Communist Party Remember Soviets get A-Bomb and China Falls to Communism Rosenbergs convicted and executed 1953 for espionage Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

22 Fall-Out Shelter

23 The Second Red Scare Loyalty Review Boardset up by Truman to investigate the loyalty of government employees. 212 dismissed, 2,900 resigned HUACinvestigated thr public as well as government employees. Most famous for investigating Hollywood for possible Communist sympathy McCarthyism- Intense fear that Communism had infiltrated out government

24 Joseph McCarthy RISE- McCarthy claimed to have a list with as many as 205 communists that worked for the government Fall- McCarthy accused U.S. Army officials of being Communists. He did this during nationally televised senate hearings. McCarthy lost the support of the public

25 Kennedy and The Cold War Bay of Pigs- Berlin Wall- Cuban Missile Crisis- Peace Corps-

26 Bobby and John Kennedy

27 Bay of Pigs, ,400 Cuban exiles (LaBrigda) trained by the CIA planned a secret attack at the Bay of Pigs Failed attack further Alienates Fidel Castro Kennedy's indecision emboldens Nikita Khrushchev as he views Kennedy as a weak leader

28

29

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