THE EARLY COLD WAR YEARS. US HISTORY Chapter 15 Section 2

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1 THE EARLY COLD WAR YEARS US HISTORY Chapter 15 Section 2

2 THE EARLY COLD WAR YEARS CONTAINING COMMUNISM MAIN IDEA The Truman Doctrine offered aid to any nation resisting communism; The Marshal Plan aided European countries in rebuilding

3 CONTAINING COMMUNISM Even though tensions were increased, many Americans believed cooperation with Soviets was possible Through out late 1945 Allies continued to meet British and Americans pushed for free elections in Eastern Europe but Stalin refused to agree British officials began comparing relationship with Stalin to relationship with Hitler

4 CONTAINING COMMUNISM The Long Telegram Frustrated with Soviets not cooperating, officials asked American Embassy in Moscow to explain behavior Feb , American Diplomat George Kennan sent what became known as the Long Telegram 5,540 word message explaining views of Soviets Said Russian views stemmed from Russian insecurity and fear of the west Believed it was impossible to reach agreement with Russians (due to long standing historical fear of capitalism)

5 CONTAINING COMMUNISM Kennan proposed what became cold war policy long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansion Though Soviets had several major weakness and problems if US could keep Soviets from expanding only a matter of time before Soviets would fall apart (NO WAR!) Telegram circulated throughout Truman Administration All policies of containment were based on this document

6 CONTAINING COMMUNISM Crisis in Iran Spring and Summer 1946 series of crises that supported theory of containment First in March 1946 in Iran US had troops in southern Iran while Soviets in northern Iran during World War II After war, instead of withdrawing from Iran, Soviets stayed and demanded access to Iran s oil supplies and helped Iran separatists establish communist gov t To American s this proved Soviets wanted to expand in middle east Secretary of State demanded Soviets withdraw and put battleship in the area for assistance if refused Soviets withdrew with promise of Iranian-Soviet oil company (later rejected by Iran)

7 CONTAINING COMMUNISM The Truman Doctrine After begin forced from Iran, Soviets turned to straits of Dardanelles in Turkey to create a direct route to Mediterranean Sea. August 1946, Soviets demanded joint control of straits with Turkey Presidential Advisor Dean Acheson saw as another way for Soviets to control Middle East Advised Truman to show force, Truman ordered aircraft carrier Franklin D. Roosevelt to join destroyer to help protect Turkey

8 CONTAINING COMMUNISM At same time, Britain was trying to help Greece against Soviets August 1946 Greek communists started guerrilla war against Greek gov t Britain helped Greece fight but told US in 1947 it could not longer help due to weak post war economy March , Truman asked congress for $400 million to fight Communist in Greece and Turkey Speech gave became known as Truman Doctrine Pledged to US would help stop the spread of communism world wide

9 CONTAINING COMMUNISM The Marshal Plan At the same time, post war Europe had its big problems Economies ruined, people starving and lots of political chaos June 1947 Secretary of State George C. Marshal proposed European Recovers Program (aka Marshall Plan Give European nations American aid to rebuild their economies

10 CONTAINING COMMUNISM Truman saw Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine as two halves of a whole Both essential for containing communism Plan would help all nations planning a recovery program (communist or not) Plan was offered to Soviets and satellite nations but rejected. Soviets developed their own economic program which further separated Europe into competing regions Marshall Plan spent billions worth of supplies, machinery and food into Western Europe This recovery weakened the idea of communism, open new trade markets

11 CONTAINING COMMUNISM 1949 Truman proposed Four Point Program for struggling areas outside of war zone. Wanted to make scientific advances and industrial progress available for improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas Four Point assistance programs continued until 1953 when merged with other programs

12 CONTAINING COMMUNISM The Berlin Airlift Truman believed Western Europe s recovery depended on German s recovery Soviets still wanted to pay reparations Dispute almost brought countries to war 1948 US decided Soviets trying to undermine Germany s economy In response, France, Britain and US said their were merging their zones and allowing Germany to have their own Gov t Also Agreed to move zones in Berlin (West Berlin part of new German Republic) New Nation called Federal Republic of Germany (aka West Germany) Soviet Zone became German Democratic Republic (aka East Germany)

13 CONTAINING COMMUNISM Creating West Germany convinced Soviets they would never get reparations June 1948 Soviet troops cut all traffic to West Berlin Wanted to force US to reconsider decision or abandon West Berlin Truman sent bombers with atomic weapons to bases in Britain and warned that US would not budge Wanted to keep West Berlin without going to war with Soviets so instead of bombing berlin, Sent air force with supplies instead (Berlin Airlift) Berlin Airlift went from June Spring 1949 bringing supplies to 2mill who were blocked by soviets Blockade lifted May

14 CONTAINING COMMUNISM NATO Berlin blockade convinced Americans that Soviets were bent on conquest of Europe Public began to support military alliance with Western Europe April 1949 agreement reached to create North Atlantic Treaty Organization (aka NATO ) First 12 Countries US, Canada, Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Denmark, Portugal, The Netherlands, Norway, Luxembourg, and Iceland Members agreed to come to the aid of any member who was attacked First time US committed itself to maintaining peace in Europe Six years later allowed West Germany to join This worried Soviets so they created Easter European military alliance know as Warsaw Pact

15 REVIEW QUESTIONS What triggered the beginning of the Berlin airlift? Who wrote the Long Telegram? What did the Long Telegram state? Explain the Marshall Plan

16 THE EARLY COLD WAR YEARS THE KOREAN WAR MAIN IDEA Attempts to keep South Korea free from communism led the United States to military intervention

17 THE KOREAN WAR Cold war eventually spread beyond Europe Conflicts started in Asia Issues with China and Korea brought new feelings towards Japan Sent American s sent back to war less than 5 years after World War II

18 THE KOREAN WAR The Chinese Revolution Communist forces led by Mao Zedong had been fighting against nationalist gov t since 1920s Suspended fighting during World War II to resist Japan End of World War II civil war broke out but neither side could win or agree to compromise To stop communist revolution, US sent 2 billion to nationalist gov t starting in mid 1940s Nationalists did not spend money wisely and had poor military planning / corruption 1949 Communists captured Beijing and support for nationalists declined

19 THE KOREAN WAR After capture, US discontinued aid to Chinese Nationalists Nationalists fled to Taiwan Communists established People s Republic of China October 1949 China s fall to communism shocked Americans This was added onto the news that in September 1949 Soviets had successfully tested first atomic weapon Early 1950s China and Soviets signed treaty of Friendship and alliance US kept formal diplomatic relations with Taiwan and used power in UN to refuse members from People s Republic of China membership

20 THE KOREAN WAR New Policies in Japan Chinese revolution caused change in policy toward Japan After World War II, MacArthur took charge of Japan Job to introduce democracy and keep from war again After China fell, adopted new policies to encourage rapid recovery of industrial economy View Japan as key to defending Asia (like West Germany key to defending Europe)

21 THE KOREAN WAR The Korean War Begins At end of World War II Soviets and US entered Korea to disarm Japanese troops there Divided Korea on 38 th parallel of latitude (allies south, Soviets north) Start of cold war, talks to re-unify Korea stopped Communist Korean gov t organized in North American-backed gov t controlled south Both said had control over all of Korea Soviets provided Military aid to North Korea who quickly built up army June 25 th 1950 North Korean troops invaded south and quickly pushed back south Koreans (not prepared)

22 THE KOREAN WAR Truman saw invasion as test of containment policy Order US Naval and air power to action Truman asked UN to get involved Successful because soviets boycotting UN due to China policy so could not veto With UN support, Truman ordered General MacArthur to send American troops from Japan to Korea American and South Korean troops were pushed back to area inside Pusan Perimeter resisting north until MacArthur s reinforcements arrived

23 THE KOREAN WAR September , MacArthur ordered daring invasion behind enemy lines at Inchon Took North Korean s by surprise In weeks had pushed them back across 38 th parallel Truman then gave order to pursue beyond 38 th parallel Got North Korean s to the Yalu River on boarder with China

24 THE KOREAN WAR China Enters the War Communist China saw advancing UN troops as threat Warned them to stop their advance Warnings ignored, so hundreds of thousands of Chinese troops entered North Korea Drove UN forces back across 38 th parallel MacArthur demanded approval to expand the war against China Blockade of Chinese ports, use of Nationalist forces, and bombing of Chinese cities with atomic weapons

25 THE KOREAN WAR Truman Fires MacArthur Truman refused MacArthur s demands to attack China Did not want to expand the war AND did not want to use the atomic bomb MacArthur continued to complain and publicly criticized Truman Said mistake to keep war limited Said Truman s actions like appeasement To maintain control and show that President commands military, Truman fired MacArthur for insubordination April 1951

26 THE KOREAN WAR MacArthur was still popular even though fired Got a hero s welcome when returning home Public criticized president, but congress and other military leaders supported Truman Also felt strategy to not attack China was good American s were committed to a limited war War fought to achieve a limited objective Also, due to Soviets close proximity to America s European allies, felt that Europe would suffer if war broke out Also did not want to have a nuclear war (main concern) This concern shaped American policy in Cold War

27 THE KOREAN WAR Changes in Policy Mid 1952 UN forces pushed Chinese and North Korean s back across 38 th parallel War now basically over Official peace negotiations began Nov. 1951, but armistice not signed until July ,600 American soldiers died in Korean War 2,800 from accidents or disease Korean War marked turning point in Cold War Before just used political pressure and economic aid to contain communism After US embarked on major military buildup to contain communism

28 THE KOREAN WAR Korean War also expanded Cold War to Asia Before 1950 focused on Europe to contain communism After US more military involved in Asia 1954 US signed defense agreements with Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines and Australia This formed SEATO : Southeast Asia Treaty Organization American aid also started going to French forces fighting Communists in Vietnam

29 REVIEW QUESTIONS What originally led to the formation of two Korea s? Explain limited War What is SEATO and when did it form?

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