Modern World History Spring Final Exam 09

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1 1. What was the goal of the Marshall Plan? A. to provide aid to European countries damaged by World War II B. to protect member nations against Soviet Union aggression C. to protect the United States economically by way of sanctions and embargoes D. to form a military alliance between the Soviet Union and China 2. The Warsaw Pact was A. the symbolic end of the Cold War between Russia and the United States. B. Russia's way of responding to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. C. the treaty signed by all nations involved in World War II, bringing it to an end. D. a promise of aid to various less-developed nations negatively affected by the war. 3. In June 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union temporarily set aside their differences when they A. joined forty-eight other countries in forming the United Nations. B. co-sponsored the Marshall Plan in an effort to end world hunger. C. came together militarily in support of South Korea after the invasion by North Korea. D. formally put an end to the decades-long Cold War. 4. Which of the following best represents what occurred following the 1989 demonstrations in Tiananmen Square? A. The students and the government came to a compromise regarding the rights and liberties of the Chinese people. B. After only two days, though the government had not budged, students grew tired of protest and left the square. C. The Chinese government massacred protesters and repressed the pro-democracy movement. D. Communism, as it had been known in China, was all but eliminated, and democracy soon replaced it. 5. What did the United States hope to prevent by sending troops to Vietnam? A. France's regaining control of Vietnam B. the revolt of the South Vietnamese against Ngo Dinh Diem C. a takeover of South Vietnam by the Vietcong D. a takeover of North Vietnam by the South Vietnamese 6. In the 1940s and 1950s, what did the region described as being "behind the iron curtain" include? A. Soviet Union only B. Soviet Union and its satellite nations C. democratic nations of Western Europe D. German Democratic Republic, or East Germany 7. What was the purpose of the Truman Doctrine? A. to raise funds for Communist activities in Europe B. to create a Communist party in the United States C. to judge political parties that favored communism D. to support countries that rejected communism 8. What was the name of the alliance established by European Communist nations in response to NATO? A. Iron Curtain B. Warsaw Pact C. Second World D. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 9. What was the Strategic Defense Initiative? A. a council created to create defense measures B. a failed operation to invade the Soviet Union C. a system to protect the United States against enemy missiles D. a program to weed out terrorist activity in the United States 1

2 Using the exhibit, choose the letter of the best answer. (4 points each) 10. What was the northernmost NATO member shown on this map? A. Turkey B. Ireland C. Norway D. United Kingdom 11. Which NATO member on this map is NOT primarily a European nation? A. Soviet Union B. Sweden C. Turkey D. Portugal 12. According to the map, which NATO member shared a border with both a neutral nation and a Warsaw Pact country? A. Austria B. Czechoslovakia C. Greece D. Italy 13. Why was it relatively easy for the Soviets to cut off highway and rail traffic into West Berlin in 1948 and 1949? A. because Berlin was in the heart of East Germany B. because the Soviets had a superior military force C. because East Berlin did not oppose the Soviets D. All of the above 14. Which NATO members shared a common border with a nonaligned country? A. Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Portugal, France, Albania B. Netherlands, Italy, East Germany, Sweden, Austria, Yugoslavia C. Portugal, France, Italy, West Germany, Norway, Greece, United Kingdom D. United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Italy, Turkey, Denmark 15. Which country became divided due to Cold War influences? A. Spain B. Germany C. Austria D. United Kingdom 2

3 16. Which European countries could receive aid through the Marshall Plan? A. any European country that needed it B. any European country that shared a border with iron curtain countries C. any European country that politically opposed the Soviet Union D. any European country that modeled its government after U.S. democracy 17. What led the Soviets to blockade West Berlin? A. the formation of NATO B. a reunification of the three western zones of Germany C. Marshall Plan aid to West Germany D. the crash of a U2 spy flight over Soviet territory 18. What event increased U.S. spending on education and technology? A. Cuban missile crisis B. establishment of the Warsaw Pact C. Chinese-Soviet treaty of friendship D. Soviet launching of a space satellite 19. Who were most of the Vietcong? A. pro-communist South Vietnamese B. pro-communist North Vietnamese C. anti-communist South Vietnamese D. anti-communist North Vietnamese 20. Which of the following was NOT a tactic used by the superpowers during the Cold War to influence Third World nations? A. sponsored revolutions and counterrevolutions B. engaged in covert operations C. provided military aid and built schools D. threatened them with nuclear attack 21. During the war in Korea, what did President Truman and Douglas MacArthur disagree strongly about? A. American involvement B. the use of nuclear weapons C. whether to attempt to cross the 38th parallel D. whether China posed a threat to South Korea 22. How did the Cold War cause a change in U.S. policy toward Nicaragua? A. The United States gave aid to the Sandinistas but withdrew support when the Sandinistas aided Marxist rebels in El Salvador. B. The United States built a nuclear base there to deter Communists. C. The failed Bay of Pigs invasion ended U.S. military aid to Nicaragua. D. The Contra rebels in Nicaragua enlisted the aid of the Soviet Union, and the United States intervened to halt Communist support. 23. Why did the United States shift from a policy of brinkmanship to détente? A. The Soviet Union became a greater power. B. Nixon and Brezhnev signed the SALT I Treaty. C. The country needed to heal its internal conflicts over Vietnam. D. The U-2 crisis almost drew the United States into war. 24. Which of the following circumstances contributed to the breakdown of the alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union? A. Stalin's nonaggression pact with Hitler B. Stalin's unfulfilled promise of free elections C. Stalin's promise to aid in the war against Japan D. United States inclusion in the Security Council 25. What statement did Joseph Stalin make shortly after President Truman's succession? A. He said that communism and capitalism could not exist in the same world. B. He said that free elections could be held only if they benefited the Soviets. C. He said that war between the United States and the Soviet Union was certain. D. All of the above 26. Which of the following worked together to produce similar goals? A. Truman Doctrine and containment B. NATO and the Warsaw Pact C. Marshall Plan and the iron curtain D. détente and brinkmanship 3

4 27. How did the "Bay of Pigs" failure lead to the Cuban missile crisis? A. Khrushchev believed the United States was too weak to oppose Soviet expansion into Cuba. B. Kennedy announced a blockade of Cuba following the failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion. C. Castro protested his country's being used as a tool for the Cold War and asked Khrushchev to intervene. D. The Bay of Pigs troops were used to build the missile bases. 28. What was the primary goal for the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan? A. to fight an indirect war with the United States B. to gain control of Middle Eastern oil supplies C. to reestablish the Communist regime in Afghanistan D. to cause the United States to boycott the 1980 Olympics 29. How did Brezhnev's leadership of the Soviet Union differ from that of Khrushchev? A. Khrushchev repressed dissent at home and abroad more than Brezhnev had. B. Brezhnev repressed dissent at home and abroad more than Khrushchev had. C. Brezhnev's policies were not as strongly felt on Eastern Europe as Khrushchev's. D. Khrushchev's policies were more directed toward Cuba than Brezhnev's had been. Use the quotation to answer this question. "An iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe... all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in many cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow." - Winston Churchill, "The Sinews of Peace" speech, March 5, The quotation expresses Churchill's concern about A. the rise of two superpowers. B. ruined cities in Eastern Europe. C. the spread of communism. D. postwar economic recovery. 31. In the 1950s, tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union increased as a result of A. the division of Germany. B. nuclear weapons development. C. the Cuban Missile Crisis. D. UN troops in Eastern Europe. 32. What was the underlying cause of the Cold War? A. conflicts within the UN Security Council B. Soviet resentment of U.S. military efforts during World War II C. border disputes in Europe and Asia D. competition between the United States and the Soviet Union Choose the letter of the best answer. 33. Which condition was a consequence of the Cold War? A. The United States sought to become the world's greatest superpower. B. The Soviet Union wished to launch a worldwide workers' revolution. C. The United States offered aid to the new nation of Israel. D. The Soviet Union supported anti-colonial efforts in the Congo. 34. Why was the Cuban Missile Crisis considered a Cold War conflict? A. The United States supported the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. B. The Soviet Union offered military and economic aid to Cuban rebels. C. Cuba was caught in a conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union. D. Cuba sought to invade the United States and further the spread of communism. 35. As a result of the Truman Doctrine, in the late 1940s the United States sent more than ten billion dollars to A. Eastern Europe. B. Cuba and Central America. C. Western Europe. D. Africa, Asia, and South America. 4

5 Use the quotation to answer this question. Modern World History Spring Final Exam 09 "I believe it must be the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." - Harry S. Truman, speech to Congress, March 12, What phrase used by Truman in the quotation best expresses his beliefs about the Soviet Union? A. "must be the policy" B. "free people" C. "attempted subjugation" D. "outside pressures" 37. The Marshall Doctrine reflected the policy of A. brinkmanship. B. containment. C. isolationism. D. nonalignment. 38. How did the Soviet Union respond to Czechoslovakia's Prague Spring? A. They permitted limited democratic reforms. B. Soviet troops invaded Czechoslovakia. C. They banned the trade union and jailed its leaders. D. Soviet authorities restored Imre Nagy to power. Choose the letter of the best answer. 39. In Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland, communist governments fell four years after the A. election of Mikhail Gorbachev. B. end of the Cold War. C. fall of the Berlin Wall. D. founding of Solidarity. 40. Which event in the Soviet Union would be an example of perestroika? A. The region of Chechnya is not allowed to secede. B. Books by formerly banned authors are published. C. Soviet leaders sign the SALT I and II agreements. D. People are allowed to own small businesses. 41. What organization of the United Nations has five permanent members? A. General Assembly B. Secretariat C. Secretary-General D. Security Council 5

6 Answer Key Modern World History Spring Final Exam A. to provide aid to European countries damaged by World War II 2. B. Russia's way of responding to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 3. A. joined forty-eight other countries in forming the United Nations. 4. C. The Chinese government massacred protesters and repressed the pro-democracy movement. 5. D. a takeover of North Vietnam by the South Vietnamese 6. B. Soviet Union and its satellite nations 7. D. to support countries that rejected communism 8. B. Warsaw Pact 9. C. a system to protect the United States against enemy missiles 10. C. Norway 11. C. Turkey 12. C. Greece 13. A. because Berlin was in the heart of East Germany 14. C. Portugal, France, Italy, West Germany, Norway, Greece, United Kingdom 15. B. Germany 16. A. any European country that needed it 17. B. a reunification of the three western zones of Germany 18. D. Soviet launching of a space satellite 19. A. pro-communist South Vietnamese 20. D. threatened them with nuclear attack 21. B. the use of nuclear weapons 22. A. The United States gave aid to the Sandinistas but withdrew support when the Sandinistas aided Marxist rebels in El Salvador. 23. C. The country needed to heal its internal conflicts over Vietnam. 24. B. Stalin's unfulfilled promise of free elections 25. A. He said that communism and capitalism could not exist in the same world. 26. A. Truman Doctrine and containment 27. A. Khrushchev believed the United States was too weak to oppose Soviet expansion into Cuba. 28. C. to reestablish the Communist regime in Afghanistan 29. B. Brezhnev repressed dissent at home and abroad more than Khrushchev had. 30. C. the spread of communism. 31. B. nuclear weapons development. 32. D. competition between the United States and the Soviet Union 33. D. The Soviet Union supported anti-colonial efforts in the Congo. 34. C. Cuba was caught in a conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union. 35. C. Western Europe. 36. C. "attempted subjugation" 37. B. containment. 38. B. Soviet troops invaded Czechoslovakia. 6

7 39. A. election of Mikhail Gorbachev. 40. D. People are allowed to own small businesses. 41. D. Security Council 7

8 Standards Summary CA HI 1 CA HI 4 CA REP 2 Modern World History Spring Final Exam 09 Students explain the central issues and problems from the past, placing people and events in a matrix of time and place. Students recognize the role of chance, oversight, and error in history. Students distinguish fact from opinion in historical narratives and stories. 8

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