Chapter 17 Lesson 1: Two Superpowers Face Off. Essential Question: Why did tension between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R increase after WWII?

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1 Chapter 17 Lesson 1: Two Superpowers Face Off Essential Question: Why did tension between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R increase after WWII?

2 Post WWII Big Three meet in Yalta Divide Germany into 4 zones (U.S., Britain, France, U.S.S.R.) Capital (Berlin) divided into 4 zones 50 countries agree to United Nations International organization intended to protect its members against aggression Stalin ignored his agreement for free elections and installed friendly communist governments in eastern European countries such as Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, and Yugoslavia.

3 Churchill claimed an Iron Curtain had fallen on eastern Europe, because of Soviet control

4 To stop Soviet expansion and influence US adopt a policy of containment. Truman s support for countries that rejected communism was called the Truman Doctrine. The Marshall Plan was a $12.5 billion program in 1948 that provided food, machines and other materials that achieved spectacular success

5 Berlin Blockade 1948 US, Britain, France withdrawal from Berlin USSR stays Stalin cut off highway, water, and rail traffic into western Berlin to frighten western nations. To break the blockade, British and American officials launched the Berlin Airlift. For 11 months planes took off every 3 minutes, day and night to fly food and supplies to West Berlin. May 1949 Stalin called off blockade

6 A divided World 10 Western European nations joined the United States and Canada in 1949 to form a defensive military alliance called NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) In response the Soviets developed their own alliance system in 1955 known as the Warsaw Pact Cold War heated up, both superpowers became nuclear powers US Developed Hydrogen bomb (1,000 time more powerful than A-Bomb) Brinkmanship

7 The Space Race The Soviets launched the satellite in August of 1957 called Sputnik I. The Soviets shot down a U-2 spy plane sent up by the United States CIA to spy on Soviet territory.

8 Chapter 17 Lesson 2: Communists Take Power in China Essential Question: What is Mao s effect on China?

9 Civil War in China Mao Zedong s Communist guerillas battle against Jiang Jieshi s (Chiang Kai-shek) Nationalist forces Nationalists advantage, outnumbering the Communists 3 to 1 & receiving $2,000,000,000 in aid from the US Mao s troops were well trained in guerilla warfare and were motivated by his promise to return land to the peasants October of 1949, Mao had gained control of the country and Jiang and the other nationalists leaders had fled to the island of Taiwan

10 Two Chinas One was the island of Taiwan (Nationalist China), which was aided by the United States Other was the mainland or Peoples Republic of China, which was supported by the Soviet Union February of 1950, USSR and China sign Sino-Soviet Pact Settled boundary issues Defense commitment

11 Transformation and Revolution Mao Zedong heading both the government and the party. Mao redistributes land to peasant, China s industries launch a 5 year plan to set production targets. Mao proclaimed the Great Leap Forward for large collective farms (communes) where peasants would be organized into production battalions to work the land together. The Great Leap forward proved to be a great leap backward, hampering growth because the peasants had no incentive to work hard when only the state profited.

12 Transformation and Revolution Mao urged China's young people to learn revolution by making revolution, and millions left the classrooms to join militias called the Red Guard The uprising led to the Cultural Revolution, the goal of which was to establish a society of peasants and workers in which all were equal. The resulting chaos shut down factories and threatened farm production and when civil war seemed imminent, Mao had to admit that the Cultural Revolution had to stop and approved of the army dissolving the Red Guard

13 Chapter 17 Lesson 3: Wars in Korea and Vietnam Essential Question: How were the wars in Korea and Vietnam similar? Different?

14 War in Korea Communist North Korea invades South Korea in a surprise attack in June of 1950 The United Nations sent an international force to Korea to stop the invasion under the leadership of General Douglas MacArthur MacArthur launched a successful attack at Inchon November of 1950 the UN troops had pushed the North Koreans almost to the border of China. Chinese felt threatened and sent 300,000 troops to aid North Korea Chinese troops drove the UN troops south

15 War in Korea After 3 years of fighting, a cease fire agreement is signed, setting up the border between North and South Korea back on the 38th parallel, but approximately 5,000,000 people had died. Since the war Korea has remained a divided country Communist north, under dictator Kim Il Sung established collective farms, built up heavy industry, and military arms South Korea free market economy prospered thanks to massive aid from the US, concentrating on developing industry and foreign trade. South Korea adopted a democratic constitution in 1987 and had free elections

16 War in Vietnam Ho Chi Minh leads Vietnam in a revolt against France to gain their independence Turns to the communists for help after United States President Eisenhower backs the French because of his domino theory, which said if one Southeast Asian nation fell to the communists, others would follow. An international peace conference divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel, with Ho s communists in the north and the US backed anti-communist dictator Ngo Dinh Diem in the south

17 The United States decided to escalate its involvement by sending troops to prevent the communist takeover. Despite the most advanced army in the world, the United States face two major problems They were fighting a guerilla war in unfamiliar territory. The South Vietnamese government defending was unpopular.

18 War in Vietnam During the 1960 s the war became increasingly unpopular in the United States, and by 1969 President Nixon decided to begin withdrawing troops. His plan called for Vietnamization, or gradually pulling out US troops and replacing them with South Vietnamese troops. The last US troops left in 1973 and two short years later the North Vietnamese communists overran the South.

19 War in Vietnam More than 1,500,000 Vietnamese had been killed and 58,000 Americans lost their lives Communist oppression caused 1.5 million people to flee Vietnam. 200,000 boat people died, 70,000 Vietnamese refugees eventually settled in the US or Canada

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