THE IRON CURTAIN. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the continent. - Winston Churchill

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1 COLD WAR

2 1. The Soviet Union drove the Germans back across Eastern Europe. 2. They occupied several countries along it s western border and considered them a necessary buffer or wall of protection from the west. THE IRON CURTAIN 3. Stalin installed Communist governments in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, and Yugoslavia. 4. At the Potsdam Conference Truman pressed Stalin to allow free elections. 5. Early in 1946 Stalin declares that communism & capitalism could not exist in the same world. War between the U.S. & U.S.S.R. was certain. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the continent. - Winston Churchill March 5, 1946

3 What is a Cold War? A State of Diplomatic hostility among nations without direct armed conflict USSR USA

4 How do you Fight a Cold War? A)Need a threat of force and power Arms, technology, influence B) Use of Propaganda created hatred and paranoia of other side C) Send economic aid to weaker nations to spread influence and gain allies D) Support with military aid nations in conflicts to protect interests or agitate other side

5 THE YALTA CONFERENCE FEBRUARY, 1945 U.S., BRITAIN & SOVIET UNION GOALS: 1. TO PROMOTE WORLD PEACE 2. TO PROVIDE EMERGENCY RELIEF 3. TO HELP FORM INTERIM GOVERNMENTS BASED ON THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE OUTCOMES: CHURCHILL, ROOSEVELT, STALIN 1. GERMANY DIVIDED INTO ZONES OF OCCUPATION 2. GERMANY WOULD PAY SOVIET UNION FOR LOSSES 3. SOVIET UNION PROMISED FREE ELECTIONS IN EASTERN EUROPE. POLITICAL CARTOON ACTIVITY

6 U.S. POLICIES 1. CONTAINMENT - Policy directed at blocking Soviet influence and preventing the expansion of Communism. 2. TRUMAN DOCTRINE - Monetary support given by U.S. to countries that resisted Communism. 3. MARSHALL PLAN- Post WWII assistance program, in which, the U.S. would provide, food, machines, and other materials to any country that needed it. SOVIET RESPONSE 1. BERLIN BLOCKADE & AIRLIFT Soviets closed all road and rail links to Berlin. The Western allies began a massive airlift to feed the West Berliners. This caused the creation of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) in BERLIN WALL East German government built a wall that separated East Berlin from West Berlin. Soldiers shot anyone that tried to escape East Berlin.

7 THE BERLIN WALL

8 1947 -The Marshall Plan What was it? A U.S. program of economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild after WWII. The goal was to promote economic and political stability in post WWII world Provided food, machines, and other materials

9 The Marshall Plan Why would the USSR oppose such a plan? Stalin saw the plan as a threat Marshall Plan aid would largely be used by the Europeans to buy U.S. manufactured goods and raw materials Communist influence on Western Europe would be reduced Soviet Union did not (or could not) offer a similar program for Eastern Europe

10 The Marshall Plan Which country received the most aid from the United States? Why would Great Britain and France receive the most aid? Is the U.S. acting out of self interest? Why?

11 The Marshall Plan Evaluate the two photos. What significant changes have occurred in the second photo?

12 The Truman Doctrine What was it? A promise made by U.S. President Truman to provide military and economic support to all countries that rejected communism This policy of stopping any further spread of communism became known as the policy of containment Why would some Americans oppose the Truman Doctrine? Feared U.S. involvement in foreign affairs Argue U.S. lacked resources to carry on global crusades against communism ( World Policeman )

13 The Truman Doctrine 1. In what way would the continuation of chaos in Western Europe be beneficial to the Soviet Union? 2. What country does the cartoonist see as the savior of Western Europe?

14 The Domino Theory What is the idea of a domino theory? The domino theory was a 20th Century foreign policy theory that speculated if one land in a region came under the influence of Communists, then more would follow in a domino effect Major Domino falls Chinese communists take control of China - USSR explodes an atomic bomb

15

16 NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization Western Nations join in a military alliance to defend against Communist threats Warsaw Pact USSR and Eastern Bloc Nations join in a military alliance to counter NATO.

17 KOREAN WAR After World War II Korea was divided, along the 38th parallel, into North Korea, occupied Soviet forces and South Korea occupied by American forces. North Korean forces, seeking to unify the country under communist rule invaded the south in Commanded by General Douglas MacArthur, UN forces prevented a northern takeover of South Korea. An Armistice was signed in 1953.

18 CUBAN REVOLUTION In 1959 Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba. He nationalized businesses and executed opponents, transforming Cuba into a Communist state. He threatened to spread Communism to other Latin American countries. BAY OF PIGS INVASION 1961 In 1961 U.S. trained Cuban exiles unsuccessfully invaded Cuba at the Bay of Pigs.

19 CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS 1962 In 1962 the United States discovered that Cuba was secretly building bases to install Soviet missiles with nuclear warheads. After President Kennedy ordered a naval blockade of Cuba and threatened and invasion, Krushev agreed to withdraw the missiles for a pledge that the U.S. would not invade Cuba.

20 VIETNAM WAR When the French withdrew from Indochina in 1954, Vietnam was divided. Ho Chi Minh Founded Communist North Vietnam, While South Vietnam established ties to the West. Communists known as Vietcong began a guerrilla war in South Vietnam with North Vietnamese support. The U.S. entered the conflict to resist communism. Although the U.S. had superior technology, and used 500,000 soldiers it could not defeat the North Vietnamese. In 1973 U.S. troops withdrew under the Paris Peace Accords. In 1975 the South fell to the North.

21 ARMS RACE The United States developed the Atomic Bomb during WWII. Soviet scientists developed one in For 40 years the superpowers spent huge amounts of money to develop more & more powerful weapons. This raised the tensions between the two countries. It also raised the fears among many people that the superpowers might become involved in a conflict that would destroy the world.

22 Nuclear Weapons: Who Has What? HISTORY OF NUCLEAR WARHEAD STOCKPILES NOTE: Totals are estimates. Lists include strategic and non-strategic warheads, as well as warheads awaiting dismantling UNITED STATES 6 3,057 31,265 26,675 22,941 14,766 SOVIET UNION ,129 19,443 39,197 27,000 BRITAIN FRANCE CHINA Source: National Resources Defense Council

23 SPACE RACE The super powers also competed in space. In 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, a satellite, into orbit around the Earth. Soon after the United States established NASA. The race was on. In 1958 the U.S. launched its own first satellite. In 1961, the Soviets sent the first man into space. In 1969 the U.S. was the first nation to put a man on the moon. Both the Soviets and Americans explored the use of satellites for military purposes.

24 B A PEOPLE OF THE COLD WAR H L C E D F M N G I J O K

25 EVENTS OF THE COLD WAR

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