Chapter 15 Section 1 Notes: Beginnings of the Cold War

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1 Name: Chapter 15 Section 1 Notes: Beginnings of the Cold War Problems of Peace At the end of World War II, government Much of was also in ruins was in ruins and had no At the, the Allies (Great Britain, France, United States, and the Soviet Union) agreed on several things This was done in part with the Between and, more than 200 Nazi and military officials were tried, several dozen were Germany would for the destruction it caused in the war Eastern Europe Outside of Germany, the and argued with each other about what to do and often the disagreed with both At Potsdam, the Soviet Union argued that it needed a of friendly countries in case Germany attacked again, as in World War I and II promised to allow the people of eastern Europe to choose their own governments American and British leaders believed Stalin would set up in Eastern Europe and beyond if allowed

2 The Conflict Worsens The relationship between the Soviet Union and Western nations became worse Tension and hostility between the United States and Soviet Union became known as the The Struggle Begins The was more than a military rivalry it was a struggle for power and control between two nations with very different Pro-Soviet governments were set up in Eastern Europe The only communist nation that was not under the control of the Soviet Union was As communism spread, tension grew It increased even more when Russia refused to remove its troops from northern World War II, a place it occupied during President Truman told his Secretary of State, Another war is in the making January 1946 In February 1946, Stalin publicly stated that he believed a war between the East and West was bound to happen From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow -- Winston Churchill, March 5, 1946 The West Resists In early 1947, the governments of and were threatened by Soviet-backed communists President Truman used this opportunity to announce the 2

3 The United States would provide and to oppose the The agreed to send hundreds of millions of dollars in aid to and War-related hurt much of Europe Truman feared this might push Europeans toward In mid-1947, the was announced Named for Secretary of State, the United States provided to help Europe quickly recover and stabilize politically Cold War Confrontations The Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan was the West s Cold War policy of United States policy adopted in the 1940s to stop the spread of by providing and to countries opposing the Soviets Crisis in Berlin The division of and was meant to be temporary In 1947, Western leaders began to plan for an from the zones they occupied as well as in With in the Soviet Zone, the Soviet Union opposed the plan In, the Soviets blocked off all land, railroad, and water routes into West Berlin West Berlin s 2,000,000 residents were unable to get supplies The Soviet Union hoped this would Berlin Western leaders organized the, and started to fly in supplies by cargo planes At one point, a cargo plane was taking off or landing in Berlin every The was a success and the Soviets called off the blockade in 3

4 New Nations and Alliances After the success of the Berlin Airlift, the western zones were merged into the months later, the Soviet zone became the or or A few The United States, Canada, and most of the Western European countries joined in a military alliance in 1949 The communist nations of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union created a military alliance in 1955 War in Korea With the surrender of to end World War II, the Allies gained control of the peninsula The and agreed to temporarily divide the country The quickly established a government in the north The supported a government in the south In June 1950, attacked, wanting to unite the country under a government Believing that failure to defend might lead to other attempts at, the United States asked the to approve the use of force to stop The UN sent a military force with troops from to Korea Most of the troops were Even with the UN troops, North Korea nearly took all of South Korea invaded at, behind enemy lines the attack was successful and the North Koreans were pushed back almost into At this point, the joined North Korea to drive the UN forces out of North Korea 4

5 During, the war settled into a with the battle lines In 1953, both sides agreed to an After three years of fighting, there were about Today, tensions still remain between North and South Korea The Korean War is sometimes called the Cold War Cause and Effect Causes Effects 5

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