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1 Bellringer Analyze the political cartoon by writing: 1. Title (make one up of there isn t one): 2. Important Words: 3. Symbols: 4. Action: 5. Message:

2 The Cold War Day 1 Ms. Luco IB Hist Americas Yr 1

3 Standards SSUSH20 Analyze U.S. international and domestic policies including their influences on technological advancements and social changes during the Truman and Eisenhower administrations. a. Analyze the international policies and actions developed as a response to the Cold War including containment, the Marshall Plan, the Truman Doctrine, and the Korean War.

4 Objective SWBAT identify the origins of the Cold War IOT analyze the international policies and actions developed as a result of the Cold War.

5 Root Cause of Cold War The United States= capitalist democratic state Soviet Union= communist authoritarian state 1917 Bolshevik Revolution (remember the Red Scare?) 1922 Establishment of the Soviet Union (communist Russia plus 14 other states: Ukraine, Georgia, Belorussia, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia)

6 The Cold War ( ) Definition: a struggle for political supremacy between the western democratic nations (mainly the United States) and the communist Soviet Union

7 End of World War II February 1945: Yalta Conference Meeting held between FDR, Churchill, and Joseph Stalin to plan final stages of WWII and set postwar arrangements April 12, 1945: Death of FDR April May 1945: Battle of Berlin and the surrender of Germany July August 1945: Potsdam Conference Another meeting between Big Three, but this time Harry S. Truman represented the U.S. Decided what to do with Germany divided it into 4 zones of occupation

8 The Atomic Age Shortly after Pearl Harbor, U.S. launched Manhattan Project with the goal of developing atomic bomb First atomic bomb tested in New Mexico desert July 1945 August 6, first atomic bomb detonated over Hiroshima August 9, second bomb over Nagasaki

9 End of World War II Turn to your shoulder buddy and discuss: What justification did Truman state for using the atomic bombs? What do you think would have happened if the atomic bombs were not used? What implications for the future would the use of this new technology have?

10 Prospects for Post-WWII Peace Bretton Woods Conference (1944): Established International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank United Nations (established Oct. 1945)

11 At the present moment in world history, nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed on the majority and the suppression of personal freedoms. Harry S. Truman

12 Containment The Iron Curtain In a March 1946 speech, Churchill called on the U.S. to work with Britain to turn back Soviet expansion The Truman Doctrine Background: Crisis in Greece Without aid, would Greece and its neighbors fall under Soviet Communism? March 12, 1947 speech Truman argued that the U.S. should assist other nations that were facing external pressure or internal revolution with the aim of containing the spread of communism Influenced by foreign policy advisor George F. Kennan

13 The Marshall Plan (1947) Also known as the European Recovery Program, proposed by Secretary of State George C. Marshall - would provide investments and capital in Western Europe to stabilize the European economy Containment in action Purpose: creating strong European economies would make Europe resistant to Communism The deets: 4-year plan; $13.3 billion appropriated for European recovery; 22 nations aided

14 Berlin Blockade and Airlift ( )

15 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) mutual defense pact between 10 European nations, Canada, and the U.S.; founded April 1949 Warsaw Pact mutual defense alliance between USSR, Soviet satellite states, and East Germany; founded May 1955 NATO and the Warsaw Pact

16 Containment in Asia Truman Doctrine was a success in Western Europe, but not as effective when applied to Asia in the 1940s Chinese civil war Ended in 1949 with Communist victory U.S.-backed Nationalist forces (led by Chiang Kai-Shek) vs. Soviet-backed Communist forces (led by Mao Zedong) Effect: The creation of a communist state in Asia altered the balance of power in the region.

17 Origins of the Korean War After WWII, U.S. and Soviet Union agreed to administer formerly Japanese-ruled Korean peninsula under a joint-trusteeship. North Korea under Soviet occupation South Korea under U.S. occupation Separated at 38 th parallel 2 dominant Korean political parties opposed this Right-wing (U.S. backed) party led by Syngman Rhee Left-wing (Soviet backed) party led by Kim Il-Sung

18 Causes of the Korean War Communist North Korea invades South Korea June 25, 1950 North Korea launches an invasion of South Korea United Nations recommends members furnish military assistance to South Truman sends air and ground forces to Korea under Gen. MacArthur Containment policy tests the ability of the U.S. to keep communism from spreading in Asia

19 Course of the Korean War See your timeline What are some key turning points? Why did Truman fire MacArthur? The Korean War is sometimes referred to as a seesaw why? How long did the conflict last?

20 Results of the Korean War July 1953 an armistice is signed 38 th parallel remains border between North and South Korea Demilitarized zone established between them No official peace treaty has been signed, and the armistice is still in place Effects: U.S. began to take lead in containment of communism Truman Doctrine remained framework for U.S. role in international affairs Police action and implications for the use of executive power Truman bypassed Congress by ordering troops into Korea Set the stage for U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War

21 To what extent was containment successful in the Korean War?

22 The Korean War in 8 min

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