Today we will identify and examine the legislation, policies and events that begin the rivalry known as the Cold War

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1 Today we will identify and examine the legislation, policies and events that begin the rivalry known as the Cold War Thought for the day: Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak; courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen. ~ Sir Winston Churchill ( ) MAKE SURE YOU ARE IN YOUR ASSIGNED SEAT!

2 The Cold War

3 What is the Cold War It was an intense rivalry between the United States and Russia between West and East and between capitalism and communism that dominated the years following WW II.

4 Words of Wisdom Winston Churchill; Germany is finished. The real problem is Russia. I can t get Americans to see it

5 It is called the Cold War because there was never any direct attacks made by the U.S. or Soviet Union on each other. Cold vs. Hot

6 FDR dies; Truman Takes Command FDR died on April 12, 1945 Truman, his Vice President for only a few months, became the leader of our country

7 Conflicting Postwar Goals Americans: wanted democracy and economic opportunities for the countries of Europe and Asia Soviets: Wanted to rebuild their nation in order to protect their own interests. They wanted to establish satellite nations, countries controlled by the Soviets along the western boundaries of the Soviet Union. Stalin wanted to overthrow capitalism around the world and install Communist governments.

8 Satellite Nations Like dominoes, one by one countries in Eastern Europe fell to Stalin and communism Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Albania.

9 The Iron Curtain A phrase coined by Winston Churchill in 1946 it refers to the division between Communist and non-communist nations Became symbol of division between East and West

10

11

12 Containment U.S. policy developed by George Kennan The U.S. could not do anything in Eastern Europe where Russia already took over, but that it should attempt to stop the formation of Communist governments any where else in the world.

13 There s communism in there! Don t let it out!!

14 The Truman Doctrine I believe that it must be the policy of the U.S. to support free peoples who are resisting (conquest) by armed minorities or by outside pressures. President Truman, 1947 And what outside pressure are we talking about?

15 The Marshall Plan U.S. wanted to help war-torn nations recover so they could create stable democracies. Seventeen nations applied for aid. Total aid given from = $13 billion

16

17 Germany: A Land Divided By 1949 there were two Germany s in Europe: 1. West Germany: democratic 2. East Germany: communist The capital of Berlin was also later divided by a wall!

18

19 Berlin Airlift Many Eastern Europeans who did not like living under Soviet communist rule fled their homes and escaped to West Berlin. Stalin wanted to stop this escape route by forcing the Western Powers to abandon West Berlin. Stalin blockaded all Allied shipments to West Berlin through East Germany. This threatened severe shortages of food and other needed supplies in West Berlin.

20 Truman did not want a war with the Soviets, nor did he want to give up West Berlin. During the next 15 months both British and U.S. aircraft delivered food, fuel, etc. by plane to the city. The Soviets finally gave up in 1949 and ended the blockade.

21 Berlin Airlift Map

22 NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization Because the Soviet Union used its veto power to block any action that stopped communism in the United Nations, the West needed another way to deal with Soviet aggression. In nations formed NATO. The guiding principle of NATO is; an armed attack against one or more shall be considered an attack against them all. This is an example of collective securitymutual military assistance among nations.

23 Current Members of NATO

24 The Soviet Union responded to the formation of NATO by creating the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance with its satellite nations in Eastern Europe.

25 UN NATO WARSAW PACT

26

27 The Arms Race The greatest area where the Soviet Union and the U.S. compete for world domination was in the arms race - the struggle to gain weapons superiority.

28 Quiz time When you are finished raise your hand!

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