What was the Cold War?

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1 The Cold War

2 What was the Cold War? Period of tension ( ) involving primarily the two superpowers (United States and Soviet Union) following W.W.II No Direct Conflict between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. (otherwise W.W.III) Proxy wars fought instead (substitute nations/groups for either U.S. or U.S.S.R.)

3 Why does the Cold War Begin? Competing Ideologies (Main Factor) Other reasons Nazi-Soviet Pact D-Day not until mid-1944 Stalin ignores Yalta Conference (Free Elections not allowed in E. European states) Only Two Super Powers (Arms Racing) The Cold War and the Spread of Communism

4 East vs. West Communist Bloc Eastern Europe (Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Hungary, and Bulgaria) Iron Curtain (Churchill) Why name Iron Curtain Communication divide(censorship) btn. West and East How did Soviets obtain these areas? Nazi retreat Justification for no free elections? Buffer States barrier btn. Soviet Union and Western Europe

5 Result? East v. West (Cont) Societies develop differently West = free East = closed (people oppressed) (Economically) West = prosperity East = stagnant development Why? Market vs. Command (Incentive???)

6 U.S. Reaction to Soviet (communist) threat The Origins of the Containment Policy Truman Doctrine Attempt to block Soviet influence and stop the spread of communism by supporting nations that reject communism. Controversial Why? Some leaders are brutal dictators Should we be supporting them??? The enemy of my enemy is my friend?

7 Other U.S. Policies/Actions The Marshall Plan Provides food, machinery, and other materials to rebuild W. Europe proposed to E. Europe too but rejected. Why? Soviets do not allow them to accept it (Western influence) Berlin blockaded by Soviets Why? Starve them into submission What saves West Berlin? Berlin Airlift( ) U.S. and Britain flew food and supplies into West Berlin Results West Berlin remains free GDR (East Germany) and FGR (West Germany) created

8 Superpowers Form Rival Alliances NATO: (1949) North Atlantic Treaty Organization U.S., Canada and 10 W. European states (Belgium, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, U.K.) Purpose? Defend Europe against USSR and spread of communism (mutual defense alliance) Warsaw Pact: (1955) U.S.S.R., E. Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania Purpose? Western threat (West Germany joins NATO)

9 NATO and Warsaw Pact Today Warsaw Pact disbands in 1991 Why? Break-up of former Soviet Union NATO (Modern States) New Purpose Difficult to define since the breakup of the Soviet Union and decline of communism Common defense of NATO nations against various threats (terrorism/wmd s/piracy/cyberattacks/civil wars???) Secure democracy

10 Threat of Nuclear War 1949 Soviets test their own atomic bomb Technology escalates H-bomb (Nuclear Fusion) Missile technology Sputnik Sets off Space Race Domino Theory Brinkmanship NASA funded by Department of Defense

11 Post WWII Soviet Union

12 Post WWII Soviet Union Cont. Totalitarian Government Shares many features with Nazi Germany Economics Cult of personality (Stalin intense propaganda) Absolute obedience to the state Police state (mass censorship and violation of other civil liberties) Purges and other mass killings (brutal regime) Est. range from 100,000 s to tens of millions (40 million) - Command economics (collectivization) 5 Year Plans Workers given small rewards at times but punished if considered lazy Gulags (labor camps in Siberia) many civilians worked to death - Ultimate result = Citizens suffer heavily under Stalin s Regime

13 Chinese Communist Revolution

14 Origins of the Revolution Chinese Communist Party (CCP) established by young radicals in Shanghai (1921) At first welcomed by Sun Yat-sen s Nationalists **Unified against Imperialist nations** Chiang Kai-shek takes over for Sun Yat-sen(d) in 1925 Shanghai Massacre (1927) Thousands killed by Chiang s forces Republic est. in Nanjing (1928) - Communist leaders go into hiding Mao Zedong becomes important leader for CCP Believes peasants will lead revolution opposed to urban workers Nationalists (aka. Kuomintang or KMT) attacked CCP forces The Long March People s Liberation Army (PLA) broke through Nationalist lines Only 9,000 out of 90,000 survive but provides hope for future

15 Chinese Civil War ( ) Chiang s government oppressive and very unpopular (especially to China s rural population) Supposed to be moving toward republican form of government (struggle to do so) During Japanese occupation (W.W.II) KMT and CCP had united against common threat - Japanese Once war is over however (1945) civil war breaks out between Nationalist and Communist forces PLA defeats Nationalist forces by 1949 Chiang and followers flee to Taiwan

16 Aftermath of Civil War People s Republic of China (PRC) established under Chairman Mao and Communist party Had promised peasants land reform for their support 1955 begin building a socialist society - private land collectively owned/most industry and commerce nationalized Hoping food production increases (doesn t happen) Great Leap Forward (1958) Radical plan intended to speed up economic growth reach final stage of communism (elimination of all social classes) Collective farms combined into Communes (30,000+ workers) Ends up being a disaster (approximately million people die) Why? Destroys incentive people hated communal living (drought/famine also contribute to problems) Cultural Revolution (1966) Red Guards (army made up of China s youth) carry out brutal attacks on intellectuals, artists, and pro-westerners and anyone else who represented old ways or ideas contrary to the regime. Heroes of the Revolution the peasants (work with their hands)

17 Korean War

18 Proxy War? Korean War ( ) A conflict between third parties fighting on behalf of more powerful parties (Soviets and Americans) Why does it begin? Two Koreas post W.W.II North Korea (occupied by Soviets/USSR) South Korea (occupied by U.S.) North attempts to install communist regime in South Korea Result? U.N. sponsors invasion led by U.S. (90% of troops) Other major nations involved North - China (directly) and USSR (indirectly) South numerous other nations join coalition forces Ends in a stalemate between two sides at 38 th parallel Armistice (longest cease fire in history) Tension/instability along border DMZ

19 Vietnam War

20 Vietnam Conflict??? Origins of conflict? French colony (Indochina) est. late 1800 s (1887) Rebellion against French occupation and pro-west gov t French unable to control situation Surrender Indochina in May 1954 Civil War breaks out between the North and South North Vietnam taken over by communist (Ho Chi Minh) NLF (National Liberation Front) or VC (Vietcong) leading communist rebellion in South Vietnam Why does the U.S. intervene? Stop the spread of Communism (Truman Doctrine) Domino Theory deeply concerned that it would spread Began sending advisors to Vietnam as early as 1959 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (2 U.S. ships attacked in 1963)

21 Results of Vietnam War Tet Offensive (1968) US Turned back VC offensive but hurt American resolve at home protest movement intensifies Johnson does not run again U.S. forces begin pulling out in 1973 (defeated) Fall of Saigon (1975) North takes over rest of country (spreads communism) Modern day situation communist??? Not as much as it had been but still referred to as communist Have enacted a number of market reforms since mid 1980 s (still considering more) Economy has improved dramatically (rice output much greater over past 30 years)

22 Soviet Invasion in Afghanistan

23 Soviet Invasion in Afghanistan Soviet Invasion 1979 Prompted by call for aid from pro-soviet government People s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) PDPA institutes a socialist regime that is hostile to various factions including assaults on Islamists mujahedeen ( strugglers people doing jihad ) opposes PDPA government and Soviets using largely guerrilla tactics War does not go well for mujahedeen early on until U.S. intervention Financial aid, advisors, and weaponry introduced in Afghanistan Stinger Missiles have huge impact on Soviet air power Soviets begin withdrawing troops in May 1988 (completed in 1989)

24 Results of Soviet invasion Soviet Union Often referred to as USSR s Vietnam Helps lead to financial collapse and eventual break-up of the Soviet Union Afghanistan PDPA government ousted Civil war ensues between various factions (Taliban) local warlords Radical fundamentalists Islamists United States We end funding to Afghanistan after war Afghanistan provides safe haven for al Qaeda 9/11 Why?

25 The Fall of the Soviet Union/Decline of Communism Soviet Union created in 1922 following Bolshevik Revolution Member Republics: 1Russia, 2Ukraine, 3Belarus, 4Uzbekistan, 5Kazakhstan, 6Georgia, 7Azerbaijan, 8Lithuania, 9Moldova, 10Latvia, 11Kyrgystan, 12Tajikistan, 13Armenia, 14Turkmenistan, and 15Estonia

26 The Fall of the Soviet Union/Decline of Communism (Cont.) Economic issues Military spending Missiles in response to U.S. (SDI) Afghanistan Overall effects of command economy Gorbachev becomes leader in 1985 Institutes reforms: perestroika (restructuring) economic reforms that allowed limited free market glasnost (openness) political reforms eased restrictions on freedom of speech, etc... Soviet Republics begin to request independence (nationalist movements) Soviet Union dissolves (1991)

27 The Fall of the Soviet Union/Decline of Communism (Cont.) Eastern European states begin to fight against Soviet control Poland Solidarity (1988 free elections) Berlin Wall is torn down in 1989 Germany reunified in 1990 Other Eastern European states free from Soviet control as well End of the Cold War???

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