Unit 11: The Cold War B A T T L E O F T H E S U P E R P O W E R S :

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1 Unit 11: The Cold War B A T T L E O F T H E S U P E R P O W E R S :

2 Textbook Help Remember your textbook has a lot of extra information that can really help you learn more about the Cold War. We will be using Chapter 31.5 and all of chapter 33

3 Unit 11 FOQs What was happening in Europe right after WW2? What did the United States want to do in Europe after WW2? What were its goals? What did the United States do to fight communism during the Cold War? Why and how did the Soviet Union collapse?

4 End of the War Because of Allied airpower and the brutality of war, many cities were destroyed and countless people left victimized and homeless. World War Two was the most destructive conflict in human history. Over 12 million soldiers died and Over 20 million civilians. Check out pg. 792 The Allied leaders meet in 1945 to decide how Europe would be repaired after the war was over. The two meetings were in Yalta and Potsdam. During those meetings the United States and Great Britain wanted democracy to be established in Europe while Stalin wanted the Soviet style communism to dominate. This was the start of BIG TROUBLE!

5 FOQ #1: What was happening in Europe right after WW2? After the end of WW2, many important things happened. Bad Guys were held responsible, one time allies became enemies, and the rebuilding of Europe began. Check out 31.5 and use this section to complete Homework #1

6 HW #1 Read pages Create an Idea Web that identifies all the stuff that happened in Europe right after World War Two. Use the sample on page 791 for help. Stop at New Conflicts Develop on page 793. Due next class For EXTRA CREDIT add more than what is required to your idea web. Add more events that happened after WW2, add additional details to the events. The more you do, the more extra credit you can get.

7 Nuremburg Trials NAZI leaders and those responsible for war crimes were put on trial by the Allies after the war at Nuremburg. Those responsible for the Holocaust and for cruelty in the Death Camps were punished. Japanese war crimes trials were also held in Japan.

8 The End of an Alliance Very soon after the end of WW2, the Soviet Union and the United States became distrustful of each other and enemies. Great Britain sided with the U.S. Soon, these negative feelings began to show as Europe became divided. One side supporting the U.S. and the other supporting the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union cut off all of Eastern Europe from the western part. Churchill called it an Iron Curtain.

9 End of Day #1 Review FOQ #1 Please review your notes and homework assignment. Now, in your own words and/or pictures create an answer for FOQ #1

10 FOQ #2: What did the United States want to do in the world after WW2? What were its goals? The United States want to accomplish two important things in the world. First, it wanted to rebuild and feed Europeans. Second, it wanted to contain the Soviet Union and not allow it to spread communism.

11 The Rebuilding of Europe The United States wanted to rebuild Europe and provide food for its people especially in Germany. Named after the Supreme Allied Commander, George Marshall, the United States spent billions of dollars to rebuild and feed much of Europe. Check out the map.

12 Battle of the Superpowers: The Cold War Begins Neither the United States nor the Soviet Union would back down against one another. This leads to over forty years of conflict and rivalry that would change the world forever.

13 Two Countries Control the World What is a Superpower? *strong economy *Huge geographic area *Tons of natural resources *Atomic weapons What is Cold War? *Indirect conflict *wars by proxy *Intense rivalries

14 HW #2: A Battle of Ideologies Communism vs. Democracy/Capitalism Cut and paste to use the link below to see what the two countries were thinking. ideologicaldifferencesrev1.shtml Make a T chart that lists the characteristics of the two ideologies that would guide the superpowers United States and the Soviet Union. Lastly, take the Bite Test at the end of the link and see how well you did!

15 End of Day #2 Review FOQ #2 Please review your notes and homework assignment. Now, in your own words and/or pictures create an answer for FOQ #2

16 FOQ #3: What did the United States do to fight communism during the Cold War? The United States did many things to try and ensure that communism would not spread from Eastern Europe. The United States used its incredible wealth and powerful military to confront and stop the Soviet Union s effort to spread communism throughout the world This was called the Truman Doctrine. In some cases, the US was successful, in others not so much. Here are some examples:

17 Protect Germany and Berlin Efforts to keep Germany democratic failed as the USSR was allowed to control the eastern half of the country. Even though Berlin was in the east, the US and others worked hard to make sure at least part of the city would remain free from Soviet influence. West Berlin remained free while East Berlin was put behind an actual wall.

18 HW #3 Read Berlin Airlift on page Study the political cartoon on page 797. Carefully read, copy, and answer questions 26, 27, and 28. Due next class.

19 Chinese Civil War After the end of World War Two, two groups in China battled to decide the future of their country. One side was supported by the United States and the other supported by the Soviet Union. What side won the civil war?

20 Korean War American president Harry Truman presented his plan to contain the spread of communism throughout the world. America s wealth and military power would be used to attempt to stop communism. The Korean War ( ) was a perfect example of the Truman Doctrine in action. US backed South Korea battled China/USSR backed North Korea. The war ended without a clear winner. Two Koreas would exist.

21 Later Conflicts By the 1960s, there were a number of different conflicts during the Cold War. The Cuban Missile Crisis was when the Soviet Union delivered nuclear missiles to Cuba. Later in the 1960s and 1970s, there was another conflict in Asia. This time in Vietnam. Like the Korean War, the North was fighting the South. Guess who s behind this war?

22 The Space Race The United States and the Soviet Union both recognized the need to conquer space travel. While the USSR was first in many ways, the United States traveled to the moon several times and was overall much more successful in establishing human presence in space

23 End of Day #3 Review FOQ #3. Please review your notes and homework assignment. Now, in your own words and/or pictures create an answer for FOQ #3.

24 FOQ #4: Why and how did the Soviet Union collapse? The collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War happened for many reasons. The stresses caused by economic, political, and military problems really illustrated how weak the Soviet Union had become during the forty plus years of the Cold War.

25 Economic Problems After the end of WW2, both the US and USSR had powerful economies. As the Cold War continued through the 1950, 1960, up to the 1980s, look where billions of dollars was being spent. Nuclear weapons. Where could that money have been spent by USSR? The Soviet communist system required huge economic support to other communist countries. This support began to fail!!

26 Political Problems By the 1980s, the economic problems in the Soviet Union began to affect their ability to control the satellite countries. Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and others who relied on Russian money, found their funding cut. Why would this funding be so important for control? The Solidarity Movement in Poland and the Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia proved that people of Eastern Europe wanted independence. Pro-democracy demonstrators in Czechoslovakia By 1989, soviet control over Eastern Europe collapsed!

27 Military Problems The Soviet Union spent billions of rubbles to keep up with the United States military spending. In addition to the arms race, the USSR also got involved in foreign conflicts such as in Afghanistan. Ultimately, the desire to keep a strong and powerful military led to the downfall of the USSR. Lastly, the Soviet Union spent a lot of money supporting Eastern European governments that used military threat to keep their people under control.

28 End of Day #4 Review FOQ #4 Please review your notes and homework assignment. Now, in your own words and/or pictures create an answer for FOQ #4

29 Sum It Up Quiz The Soviet Union and the United States were the two superpowers after World War Two. What is a superpower? The United States and Soviet Union each controlled parts of Europe. What was the symbolic term used to describe the divide between the east and west? The United States rebuilt and fed Europe for the purpose of helping Western Europe regain its strength. What was the name of the plan to accomplish this? The United States decided to confront and contain communism all over the world. What was the name given for this philosophy? The USSR s inability to support eastern European powers led to pro-democracy movements. Name two of those movements that happened in Eastern European countries.

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