Chapter 14 Section 1. Revolutions in Russia

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1 Chapter 14 Section 1 Revolutions in Russia

2 Revolutionary Movement Grows Industrialization stirred discontent among people Factories brought new problems Grueling working conditions, low wages, child labor Unions were outlawed

3 Revolutionary Movement Grows Revolutionary groups began to compete for power Marxist revolutionaries believed that the industrial class would overthrow the czar The proletariat would rule the country

4 Revolutionary Movement Grows Marxist split into two groups Mensheviks wanted a broad support for the revolution Bolsheviks small number of committed revolutionaries will to sacrifice everything for change

5 Revolutionary Movement Grows A major leader of the Bolsheviks was Lenin Early 1900 s, he fled to western Europe to avoid arrest by the czar

6 Lenin

7 Russo Japanese War Russia was defeated News of Russian losses sparked unrest at home Led to a revolt in the middle of the war

8 Bloody Sunday January 22, 1905 Workers and their families approached the czar s palace Wanted better working conditions, more freedom and an elected legislature

9 Bloody Sunday Generals ordered soldiers to fire on the crowd 1,000 were wounded Several hundred were killed

10 Bloody Sunday

11 Bloody Sunday Provoked strikes and violence across Russia Nicholas promised more freedom Approved the creation of the Duma

12 Entered World War I World War I Unprepared for the military and economic costs No match for the German army In the first year, more than 4 million Russians were killed, wounded or taken prisoner

13 World War I Nicholas moved his headquarters to the front Hoped to rally the troops Left his wife, Alexandra, to run the government She was influenced by Rasputin

14 Rasputin

15 World War I Rasputin claimed to have magical healing powers Eased Alexandra s son of hemophilia symptoms To show gratitude, she allowed Rasputin to make key political decisions

16 World War I He opposed reforms Gave political positions to his friends A group of nobles murdered him

17 End of Day 1

18 The Bolshevik Revolution Lenin and the Bolsheviks gained control of the Petrograd soviet Slogan was Peace, Land and Bread He gained widespread appeal

19 The Bolshevik Revolution Armed factory workers stormed the winter palace in Petrograd Red Guards took over government offices Arrested leaders of the provisional government

20 Bolsheviks in Power Lenin ordered all farmland distributed among the peasants Gave control of the factories to the workers

21 Bolsheviks in Power Signed a truce with Germany Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Surrendered a large piece of land to Germany and its allies This triggered anger among the Russians

22 Civil War in Russia White Army: opponents of the Bolsheviks Made up of different groups Those who supported the czar Thos who wanted democratic government Socialists who opposed Lenin

23 Civil War in Russia Leon Trotsky led the Bolshevik Red Army : civil war in Russia Red Army crushed the opposition 14 million people dead

24 Lenin Restores Order Economy was destroyed Lenin put aside his plan for state controlled economy Small scale version of capitalism

25 New Economic Policy Allowed peasants to sell their surplus crops Government controlled major industries, but let some small businesses operate Encouraged foreign investment

26 Political Reforms Organized Russia into several self governing republics under the central government Country became the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

27 Political Reforms Bolsheviks changed their name to the Communist Party Created a constitution based on socialist and democratic principles Communist Party held all the power

28 Stalin Becomes Dictator Lenin died in 1922 Competition for the head of the Communist Party Stalin vs. Trotsky

29 Stalin

30 Trotsky

31 Stalin Becomes Dictator Stalin worked behind the scenes Put his supporters in positions of power By 1928, Stalin was in total command

32 Trotsky chills in Mexico Trotsky moved to Mexico City following Stalin s rise to power He lived with Frida Kahlo, a famous artist Here is an attractive man chilling at Frida s house, next to Trotsky s bedroom

33 Section 2 Totalitarianism

34 Stalin builds a Totalitarian State Stalin wanted to create a perfect Communist state in Russia Used a police state to maintain his power Secret police arrested and executed millions

35 Great Purge Stalin turned against members of the Communist Party Campaign of terror against anyone who threatened his power Responsible for 8 to 13 million deaths

36 Russian Propaganda and Censorship Stalin controlled all newspapers, motion pictures, radio and sources of information All glorified the achievements of communism, Stalin, and economic programs

37 Education and Indoctrination Government controlled all education (nursery schools through university) Lectured workers and peasants on the ideals of communism Stressed the importance of sacrifice and hard work

38 Religious Persecution Replace religion with the ideas of communism Russian Orthodox Church was main target for persecution Destroyed churches and synagogues

39 Stalin Seized Control of the Economy Stalin s plans called for a command economy System in which the government made all economic decisions Political leaders identify the country s economic needs and determine how to fulfill them

40 An Industrial Revolution Five Year Plan for development Set impossible quotas to increase output Limited the production of consumer goods Produced impressive results

41 Agricultural Revolution Government seized farms Formed government owned collective farms Peasants fought against it Between 5 and 10 million peasants died By 1938, 90% of farms were collective

42 Daily Life Under Stalin Women s roles expanded People became better educated Mastered new skills

43 Daily Life Under Stalin Found personal freedoms limited Consumer goods in short supply Dissent prohibited

44 Women Gain Rights Laws were passed to grant women equal rights Government provided child care for working mothers Greater educational opportunities Careers in science and medicine

45 Women Gain Rights Had full time jobs Responsible for house work Responsible for child care Motherhood was considered a patriotic duty

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