Tsar Nicholas II and his familly

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3 Tsar Nicholas II Nicholas II of Romanov family was Tsar at the start of the 1900s Was married to an Austrian, Tsarina Alexandra Had 4 daughters and 1 son Alexei

4 Tsar Nicholas II and his familly

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6 Problems faced by people in Russia under the Tsars Poverty, social problems Poor working and living conditions Landowners system Inequality in society (housing, education, healthcare, work) Lack of democracy (Duma set up in 1905 but had relatively little power) Lack of freedom to express ideas or criticise the Tsar

7 Russia in World War I Russia, Britain and France (main Allied Powers) faced Austria-Hungary, Germany and Turkey (main Central Powers)

8 Tsar Nicholas II in World War 1 Russia did badly in the war Lots of suffering, death, injury, destruction of property and food shortages Tsar decided to go to lead troops, hoping to inspire them

9 Opposition to Romanovs intensifies Nicholas left Alexandra in charge She was advised and influenced by Rasputin Powerful people were unhappy with the situation and decided to stage a coup

10 Rasputin

11 February Revolution and the Provisional Government 1917 In February 1917 a fairly bloodless revolution saw overthrow of Tsar Provisional Government set up until elections could be held Kerensky became leader of the Provisional Government

12 Unpopularity of Kerensky and the Provisional Government The Provisional Government continued the war with Germany and did not take land from landlords to distribute it to the peasant farmers Unpopularity of Provisional Government exploited by Bolsheviks

13 Vladimir Ilyich Lenin Lenin's brother executed for plot to kill Tsar Lenin thrown out of University for political activity Arrested in St. Petersburg in 1897 and sent to Siberia for 5 years

14 Vladimir Ilyich Lenin After his release he left Russia Went to Europe (England and Switzerland) Continued revoltionary activity from there

15 October Revolution 1917 The Provisional Government was overthrown in a revolution in October 1917 Various groups competed for control but eventually the Bolsheviks (Communists) led by Lenin won out

16 The Bolsheviks Social Revolutionaries (Communists) were inspired by the ideas on revolution of Karl Marx SR split in 1903 into the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks Mensheviks believed in mass revolution Bolsheviks felt a small group was needed to secretly plan a revolution

17 Lenin returns to Russia 1917 In 1917 the Germans helped Lenin to return to Russia by train The Germans hoped Lenin would promote unrest or revolution and this would weaken Russia in the war

18 Aims of the Bolsheviks Greater equality and social justice Redistribution of wealth Workers' Councils to run factories Slogans like 'Land, Peace, Liberty' proved very popular

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25 Changes introduced by Bolsheviks Bolsheviks announced that peace talks with Germany to start Bolsheviks said they would confiscate land from the landlords All ranks were abolished: social, military, naval, aristocratic All citizens to be known as 'comrade' Military officers were to be elected by soldiers Better working hours and conditions introduced for workers Factories put under control of the workers

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27 The Brest Litovsk Treaty In March 1918 Russia signed peace treaty with the Germans Russia agreed to give up lots of territory with natural resources Poland, Ukraine, Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania l High price but Bolsheviks wanted an end to war to consolidate power at home and deal with opponents of 1917 October Revolution

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29 The Cheka Cheka was a secret police set up by the Bolsheviks to deal with opponents Hundreds of thousands imprisoned or executed Led by Dzerzhinsky Tsar and his family executed at Ekaterinburg Felix Dzerzhinsky

30 Opposition: Reds versus Whites Many Russians were unhappy with Bolshevik rule Nobility, aristocracy, Liberals, Tsarists Other socialist and revolutionary groups who had been marginalised or excluded Peasant Farmers (Kulaks) who hoped Bolsheviks would redistribute land Ordinary Russians who were still facing food shortages and other problems

31 Russian Civil War Bolshevik Red Army (led by Trotsky) fight 'Whites' (opponents of Bolsheviks) Whites helped by USA, GB, France Czech Legion (led by Kolchak) took control of Siberia and Trans-Siberian Railway Denikin attacks from S.E. Russia Yudenith attack from Baltic Poles from West US/GB/French from North (White sea)

32 Trotsky and the Red Army

33 Anti-Bolshevik Poster 1918

34 The Russian Civil War

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37 Why the Red Army won the Russian Civil War Whites did not win support of peasants (often looted from them etc...) Whites not very united (made up of very diverse groups with different politics and aims) Whites helped by France, GB etc.. made them seem unpatriotic to many Russians France and GB and USA did not send enough troops to make a significant difference (more interested in sorting out own problems by 1919) Red Army had a very effective leader Reds more unified geographically

38 The Red Terror The Red Terror was used to describe the period where harsh treament was given to anyone seen as opposing the Bolsheviks Millions imprisoned or killed during this period

39 War Communism WW1 and Civil War caused major disruption to agricultural and industrial production Lenin introduced a policy of 'war communism' where the 'means of production' (farms, factories, transport system, etc..) all came under control of the communist government

40 War Communism All private trading banned Strikes banned Food rationed Forced labour introduced Food to feed workers and soldiers requisitioned by the communist government Food taken by force from farmers (kulaks) if necessary

41 Problems caused by War Communism Lenin's policy of War Communism helped the 'Reds' win the civil war But caused hardship and food shortages for many Russians Revolts by peasant farmers (Kulaks) Food production fell in many areas because: Peasants had no incentive to produce surplus food Bad weather in 1920 & 1921 affected crops This contribute to famine in Russia in in which over 4m people died

42 The Kronstadt Revolt In March 1921 sailors at naval base on Kronstadt Island near Petrograd revolted against the Communist Party Sailors disappointed by changes since revolution and angry at hardship caused by War Communism Sailors demanded reforms and an end to War Communism Kronstadt revolt was violently suppressed by Trotsky and the Red Army

43 New Economic Policy (NEP) Lenin and communist government were worried about falling food production caused by war communism New Ecomonic Policy introduced by Lenin in March 1920 Peasants had to provide a quota of food but could keep surplus which they could sell on if they wished Private trading was reintroduced Some small private business allowed to operate Major industries remained in state conrol Foreign trade and investment allowed

44 Lenin's Death Lenin died in 1924 In his 'Political Will' he made it clear that Stalin should not become dominant leader after his death Various leaders vied for control of the Communist Party's Central Committee after Lenin's death

45 Early life Involvement in politics Imprisoned: Siberia Lives in exile Peace: Brest-Litovsk Treaty Dealing with opponents/red Terror/Cheka Revolutionary plotting/writing 1917 Feb. Rev. Returns to Russia War Communism Kronstadt Revolt 1917 October Rev. Bolsheviks Changes introduced: ranks, nationalise industries, confiscate land Civil War: Reds vs. Whites Problems: food shortages etc.. NEP (New Economic Policy Political will/legacy/ death

46 About the Communist Party's General Secretary (since 1922), Joseph Stalin, Lenin reported that the "unlimited authority" concentrated in him was unacceptable, and suggested that "comrades think about a way of removing Stalin from that post." His phrasing, "Сталин слишком груб", implies "personal rudeness, unnecessary roughness, lack of finesse", flaws "intolerable in a Secretary-General".

47 Early life October Revolution Communist government Brest Litovsk Treaty Dealing with opposition Civil War War Communism New Economic Policy Lenin's Testament

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