Russian Revolution. Isabel Torralbo Talavera

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1 Russian Revolution

2 Background Russia was the largest regime (land and population) in Europe.

3 ECONOMY - SOCIETY - Weak, based on agriculture, slow industrial development opposite to others. - Lack of social mobility (semi-feudal regime) - Increase in industry creates low wages, child labor, miserable working conditions.

4 POLITICAL SITUATION 1894-Nicholas II, autocratic rule, poor decisions. Absolutism-repression of the czars; lack of enlightened ideas. Duma (congress) rarely met often disbanded by czars. Russification-forcing many nationalities of the empire to have the same language (Russian), customs, and traditions.

5 Several political parties Democratic Constitutional Party (bourgois Liberal) Social Revolutionary Party (peasant revolution) Esers Russian Democratic Party (Marxist) 1912 Mensheviks Bolsheviks

6 Rasputin. Too much influence on royal family. Corrupt.

7 Russo-Japanese War ( )-humiliating loss. Bloody Sunday -workers march peacefully, shot at.

8 Revolution of 1905 (fails). Soviets will appear (assemblies of soldiers, peasants and workers) Strikes, violence, demostrations. Unfulfilled promises :universal sufrage, agricultural reform

9 REVOLUTION 1917 Immediate Cause World War I Russia s poor showing (military disasters) Lack of supplies, millions in casualties, desertions Revolution 1917 Feb : bourgeois revolution Provisional Government October : Soviet Revolution

10 February 1917 Events of Revolution Social and economic crisis: inflation, lack of raw materials. Military crisis Development 23 rd February, big demonstration in Saint Petersburg peace and bread 25 th General strike 26 th soldiers refused to shoot at people. Motinies in the quarters 27 th _ Provisional Governmenl Luov + Kerensky

11 March. Czar Nicholas abdicates Republic Lenin back from Isabel exile. Torralbo Talavera

12 Provisional Government Kerensky and the Mensheviks (moderate) still support WWI crisis continued April thesis Lenin All power for the soviets - Condemns the Provisional Government as bourgeois and urges "no support" for it -Calls for a parliamentary republic not to be established and calls this a "retrograde step." He calls for "a republic of Soviets of Workers -Asserts that Russia is "passing from the first stage of the revolution which placed power in the hands of the bourgeoisie to its second stage, which must place power in the hands of the proletariat and the poorest sections of the peasants.

13 TRUE OR FALSE? LENIN Lenin s brother was hanged for plotting to kill the czar. Lenin was kicked out of college. Lenin was exiled to Siberia for three years Lenin was not his real name. Lenin was mummified following his death.

14 October / November Revolution The Bolsheviks with the Red Guard take the Winter Palace (October 1917) Provisional Government overthrown. A workers government was proclaimed led by Lenin. The revolution has succeded.

15 First measures of the new government Treaty of Brest- Litovsk out of WWI. (very hard conditions for Russia)

16 Land was expropiated and divided up between the peasants Factories were taken over by workers comittees November 1917 Elections for the Constituent Assembly

17 PartyOt Votes Percent Deputies Socialist- Revolutionary Party (SRs) Bolsheviks 17,100, ,800, Constitutional Democratic Party (Kadets) Mensheviks 2,000, ,360, Others 11,140,

18

19 Civil war Reds vs. Whites ( ).

20 Civil War Combatant: Bolsheviks (Red Army) led by Trotski vs Mix of liberals and supporters of Tsarism (White Army) Victory of the bosheviks: Popular support Lack of coordination among the different armies Trotsky.

21 Moscow capital (1918) U.S.S.R. (Union of Socialist Soviet Republics 1922)

22 After Civil War Federal State: Union of Socialist Soviet Republics Economy ( ) NEP system of mixed economy which allowed private individuals to own small enterprises 1924 Constitution (book Supreme Soviet (legislative power) Presidium ( head of State) Council of Peolple s Commissars (Government CPSU (Communist Party of the Soviet Union

23

24 After Lenin s death power struggle Trotsky / Stalin Trotsky export the revolution Stalin socialism in one country Josef Stalin becomes the leader of the Soviet Union.

25 Forced Russia into a modern industrialized nation. Totalitarianism. 5 year plans collective farms Purges out all his enemies.

26 USSR is a super power.

27 h?v=zt2z0nrsq8o What characters can you recognize in the video? What vision (good, bad ) does it give from each one of them? Give specific examples.

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