Second Industrial Revolution

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1 Second Industrial Revolution

2 First Industrial Rev Textiles, steam, coal, iron, railroads British supremacy Factory life that significantly altered the family, home, urban conditions, etc. Second Industrial Rev Steel, chemicals, electricity, oil European industrialization caught up with Britain, specifically in Germany (Germany even surpassed Britain in steel production and economic health) Factory life that significantly altered the family, home, and urban conditions, but also spurred public health and social reform

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8 New Paris by Georges von Haussmann

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13 Department stores

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15 Competitive sports

16 Bicycles

17 An early automobile

18 Automobiles

19 The first plane

20 Telephones

21 Gramophone and radio

22 Socialism

23 Intro Aside from improvements in the sewage system, housing, and public transportation, which benefited all Western European people, most of the consumerist developments of the late 19th century benefited the middle class rather than the working class Even though factory wage earners and unskilled workers predominated in industrializing continental (not British) countries, they did not receive much support from the state Frequently they turned to trade unions, newly organized democratic political parties, and socialism for help All major European states (except Russia) adopted democratic electoral systems (universal male suffrage)--> greater representation for workers (socialists)

24 Marxism and the First International In the 1860 s and 70s, British and French trade unionists formed a Marxist socialist group called the First International While short lived, it allowed Marxism to prevail as the most important strand of socialism Provided a forum to debate socialist doctrine, spread ideas, and unite oppressed members of the working class Deeply influenced German socialists, who would develop the most powerful socialist party in Europe

25 Great Britain The concerns of the working class, socialist or not, most often were absorbed by the Liberal Party or new Labour Party Socialists most often joined the Fabian Society, which believed that the problems of industry could be solved gradually, peacefully, and democratically (rather than through revolution, Marx s idea) The British gov t responded slowly to these ideas in the Liberal Party Protected unions Regulated certain trades National Insurance Act of 1911-provided unemployment benefits and health care Parliament Act of gave the House of Commons the power to override the legislative veto of the House of Lords Increased role of the state in the life of the citizens

26 France Syndicalism- idea created by Georges Sorel The general strike was a device to unite workers and gain them power Brought about frequent and unsuccessful strikes from

27 German Social Democratic Party (SPD) Debate on reform vs. revolution Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor, continuously suppressed the SPD He believed it would undermine German politics and society Used an assassination attempt on Kaiser Wilhelm I to stir anti-socialist sentiment, even though they had been uninvolved in the attempt This did not prevent socialist representation in the Reichstag Bismarck conceded several paternalistic and conservative measures to the socialists first major industrial nation to employ this kind of welfare Health insurance Accident insurance Old age and disability pensions Social security

28 Cont. Forced Bismarck s resignation; opened the doors for Kaiser Wilhelm II to build political support among the working class Erfurt Program of socialist ownership of the means of production (seized by legal political participation, not revolution) Goal to improve workers lives SPD was hostile to the German Empire but operated within existing institutions made them successful

29 Russia After the assassination of Alexander II, Sergei Witte rose through the ranks to lead Russian industrialization He aggressively courted western capital and advanced technology to build great factories. This resulted in rise of a small Russian middle-class. Gov t-built state-owned railroads doubled to 35,000 miles by Construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway helped to modernize Russia; it connected Moscow with Vladivostok 5,000 miles. By 1900, Russia was 4th in steel production (behind the U.S., Germany and Britain). By 1900, Russia exported half the world's refined petroleum. As in western Europe, industrialization in Russia contributed to the spread of Marxist thought and the transformation of the Russian revolutionary movement after 1890 (as industrial workers felt exploited).

30 Cont. Despite economic and social reforms, Russia's economic problems were still staggering by One-third of Russian farmland was not utilized; food production could not keep pace with the increasing population. Russia had become the most populous nation in Europe by the late-nineteenth century. The depression of 1899 wiped out gains since 1890 resulting in tremendous unemployment. 60% of the population was illiterate, although literacy was growing in urban areas like Moscow and St. Petersburg. Russia s plight was aggravated by the Russo-Japanese War of 1905.

31 Alexander III, The most reactionary tsar of the 19th century. He sought to rule Russia through Autocracy, Orthodoxy, and Russification (nationalism). The state s grip on higher education was tightened Russian Orthodox Church persecuted other religious groups (that constituted about 1/3 the empire s population) Encouraged anti-semitism: pogroms resulted in severe persecution of Jews (many emigrated to the U.S.)

32 Nicholas II, Last of the Romanov tsars Russo-Japanese War ( ) Russia had established a sphere of influence in Manchuria and now sought Korea (which had just been acquired by Japan in the Sino-Japanese War). The Russian fleet was destroyed by Japan in 1905 and Russian losses were heavy at the bloody land battle at Mukden. Treaty of Portsmouth (1905) Russia accepted Japanese control of Korea and gave concessions to Japan in Manchuria and half of Sakhalin Island. The Russian government now turned its attention away from east Asia and focused instead on expanding Russian control in the Balkans. Russia s dismal showing in the war became a major cause of the Revolution of Many Russians were angry that soldiers were dying in a faraway location for a losing cause.

33 Revolution of 1905 Liberalism had gradually grown in certain segments of the Russian population over the previous 50 years. A professional middle class emerged due to increased educational opportunities, increased gov t jobs, and industrial development. Liberals also included some nobles and some leaders of the Zemstvos (village communes) The poor economy and strains of war led peasants, the growing urban proletariat, and the middle class to demand reforms. Some reforms included reduction of the work day (1897) and a factory insurance law (1903). Bloody Sunday, Jan ,000 workers and peasants marched peacefully to the "Winter Palace" asking the tsar for reforms.

34 Cont. Tsar Nicholas II was not in town. The army fired on marchers in cold blood, killing about 300 and wounding an additional 1,000. A general strike, peasant revolts, and troop mutinies paralyzed Russia by October and Nicholas was forced to make concessions in the October Manifesto. One of the largest concessions was the creation of a national parliament the Duma. Serfs no longer had to make payments to the state for lands received due to emancipation. Poles and Lithuanians were allowed to once again use their own languages. Religious toleration was allowed in Poland. Political trials were returned to regular courts. Some restrictions on Jews were abolished.

35 Cont. The October Manifesto of 1905 created the Duma. The Duma met for the first time in the spring of The majority consisted of committed liberals called Cadets (Constitutional Democratic Party) The Duma was a national assembly that would serve as an advisory body to the tsar. Representatives were elected by universal male suffrage. Granted freedom of speech, assembly and press The tsar retained absolute veto. Revolutionaries were divided, however, resulting in Duma having no real influence Propertied classes benefited at expense of workers, peasants and national minorities Nicholas dissolved the Duma twice in 1906.

36 Cont. Some Kadets sought to reduce the power of the tsar, give certain noble lands to peasants, and make government officials answerable to the Duma. Many liberals and middle-class professionals continued to urge reform. A third Duma was created in 1907 that was more conservative and sympathetic to the tsar. Repression was used successfully by the regime to weaken political opponents or sympathetic critics of the regime. Government-sponsored violence occurred in Latvia and Estonia in 1906 resulting in over 1,000 deaths. Jews were once again savagely persecuted German, Russian and Polish property owners were attacked Almost 1,000 alleged political opponents were executed due to sentences by military courts in

37 Socialism The Russian Social Democratic Workers Party formed in Minsk in 1898 with Vladimir Lenin as one of its leaders. Lenin became the heir to Marx in socialist thought. Three basic ideas were central to Lenin s philosophy: Capitalism could be destroyed only by violent revolution Socialist revolution was possible under certain conditions, even in relatively backward Russia. Peasants were poor and thus potential revolutionaries. Necessity of a highly disciplined workers party, strictly controlled by a dedicated elite of intellectuals and full-time revolutionaries This constituted a major difference with Marx who believed in a revolution controlled by the workers. In 1903, the Social Democrats (Social Democratic Workers Party) split into two factions:

38 Cont. Mensheviks (the "minority"): They wanted to await the evolution of capitalism and the proletariat; sought a more democratic party with mass membership. Bolsheviks (the "majority"): Followed Lenin's ideas In light of the 1905 Revolution ( Bloody Sunday ) the Bolsheviks in exile planned a revolution. Lenin and Leon Trotsky formed workers' Soviets (councils of workers, soldiers and intellectuals). The influence of socialists, soldiers Soviets, and other parties increased before WWI. Rise of Rasputin s influence in the royal court

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