THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION (1917)

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION (1917)"

Transcription

1 THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION (1917) 1. Introduction 2. Background to the revolution 3. The rise of Lenin and the Bolsheviks 4. Civil War 5. Triumph of the communists 6. Lenin s succession 7. The terror and the purges of Stalin 8. Conclusion 1. INTRODUCTION The Romanov dynasty of Russia ended when Tsar Nicholas II stepped down and a provisional government was put in power. The instability in the government and the participation of Russia in WWI offered an opportunity to the Bolsheviks, who under Lenin overthrew the provisional government. By 1921, the Communists were in total command of Russia. 2. BACKGROUND TO THE REVOLUTION In 1900 Russia was a poor country compared with Western Europe. The peasants were no longer serfs, but their life was still poor and primitive. Tsar Nicolas II had absolute power in Russia; he had all the state powers and a complete control over the government. Educated people believed that big reforms were necessary in Russia. They wanted to say in policy. In 1905 Russia was defeated in a war with Japan (both of them wanted to expand their territories in Manchuria) and this provoked rebellion, riots and economic crisis. Rebellion broke out after troops fired on striking workers in the capital, St. Petersburg. People went in a demonstration to Tsar s Winter Palace asking for bread and political reforms or improvements; it is known as Bloody Sunday or Red Sunday, because the Tsar sent its soldiers to shoot the people. After that, the Tsar created a parliament, the Duma with the promise of a more democratic government, but this did not happen. The Tsar has the right of veto (the last decision). 1

2 RUSSIA AND WORLD WAR I - Russia was not prepared for World War I. There were no competent military leaders in Russia. Tsar Nicholas II was in charge of the armed forces, but he had no training or ability for this. Russian industry was not able to produce the weapons needed for the army. Because of these problems, the Russian army suffered heavy losses. Between 1914 and 1916, two million soldiers were killed. There were also hunger and food shortages along the country. A POOR LEADERSHIP - While the Tsar was at the battlefront, his wife Alexandra made all of the important decisions. She consulted Rasputin,a Siberian peasant who claimed to be a holy man. She was influenced by him because he seemed to be able to stop the bleeding of her son Alexis, who had hemophilia. Because of his influence, Rasputin became an important power in Russia. With such poor leadership, the Russian people suffered through a series of military and economic disasters. The people became more and more upset with the rule of the tsar. Even the conservative aristocrats, who supported the tsar, felt that something has to be done. They assassinated Rasputin in December THE STRIKES - In March 1917, working women led a series of strikes in the capital city of Petrograd (formerly St. Petersburg). The government had begun rationing bread. The same women who were working 12-hour days in the factories were now forced to wait in long lines to get bread to feed their children. On March 8th, 1917, about 10,000 women marched through the city of Petrograd. Other workers soon joined them. They called for a general strike, which shut down factories in the city on March 10th. Czar Nicholas ordered troops to break up the crowds by shooting them if necessary. But large numbers of soldiers soon joined the demonstrators and refused to fire on the crowds. THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF KERENSKY - The Duma, or legislative body, which the tsar had tried to dissolve, met anyway. On March 12th, it set up a provisional government. This government asked the tsar to abdicate because Nicholas II had no support from the army or even from the wealthy aristocrats; he gave up the throne on March 15th. The provisional government, led by Alexander Kerensky, decided to remain in the war to preserve Russia s honour, but Workers and peasants no longer supported the war. The provisional government was also faced with a challenge to its authority the soviets. The soviets were councils in Russia composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers. They were largely made up of socialists. One group, the Bolsheviks, began to play a crucial role. 2

3 3. THE RISE OF LENIN AND THE BOLSHEVIKS The provisional government was going to have opposition from the revolutionaries who wanted power for themselves. Among them was the SDLP (Social Democratic Labour Party), a Marxist party: They wanted to set up a communist state based on the ideas of the 19 th century political thinker Karl Marx (Marxism). The party split into Bolsheviks (the majority) who wanted a small party and were led by Lenin; and Mensheviks (the minority) led by Martov, who wanted a mass party. Lenin believed that violent revolution was the only way to destroy the capitalist system. He believed that a small group of welldisciplined revolutionaries could accomplish this. From 1900 to 1917, Lenin spent most of his time abroad. During the war, Lenin was in exile in Switzerland. When the provisional government was formed, he saw this as an opportunity for the Bolsheviks to take power. In April 1917, German military leaders helped Lenin to return to Russia. They hoped that he would create disorder in Russia. Bolsheviks wanted peace, so Russia would stop fighting in WWI, so Germany could send all its troops to the Western front. Lenin s arrival started a new stage in the Russian Revolution. He adapted Marx s ideas to the Russian context; this was called Marxism- Leninism. He believed that the Bolsheviks should gain control of the soviets and use them to overthrow the provisional government. Lenin wrote a document called the April thesis, promising Peace, bread, land and freedom. The Bolsheviks told the people what they wanted to hear.. They promised an end to the war,. The redistribution of land to the peasants,. The transfer of factories from capitalists to the workers,. The transfer of government power to the soviets Soviets (elected committees of workers, peasants and soldiers) 3

4 By October 1917, the Bolsheviks held a slight majority in the Petrograd and Moscow soviets. The number of Bolsheviks had grown from 50,000 to 240,000. Leon Trotsky, a dedicated revolutionary, led the Petrograd soviet. This put the Bolsheviks in a position to claim power in the name of the soviets. During the night of November 6th, the Bolsheviks attacked the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, where the provisional government met, and took power. The government quickly collapsed. Lenin turned power over to the Congress of Soviets. But the real power passed to the Council of People s Commissars, headed by Lenin. The Bolsheviks changed their name to the Communists. Now that they were in power, they faced the difficult task of removing Russia from the war. This would mean the loss of much Russian territory, but there was no real choice. Bolsheviks moved the capital to Moscow. Russia gave up the WWI, Bolsheviks made peace with Germany (Treaty of Brest Litovsk (1918) and gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic provinces. He told his critics the spread of the socialist revolution would make the treaty irrelevant. Even with this treaty, real peace did not come, because the country soon sank into civil war. In this map we can see the territories lost by Russia after this treaty 4

5 4. CIVIL WAR Many people were opposed to the new Communist government. They included groups loyal to the czar, liberals, anti-lenin socialists, and the Allies. The Allies sent troops that gave aid to anti-communist forces. From 1918 to 1921, the Communist ( Red Army) was forced to fight on many fronts against the anti- Communist forces (White Army). In the early part of the civil war, the White Army had several successes. But by 1920, the major White forces had been defeated. Within a year, the Communists regained control of Ukraine, Georgia, Russian Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The royal family was a victim of the civil war. On July 16th, 1918, members of the local soviet murdered Nicholas II and his family in Yekaterinburg, where they were being held captive, including Anastasia, the Tsar s daughter. 5. TRIUMPH OF THE COMMUNISTS The Communists had won the civil war over so many opponents. There were several reasons for their success. Firstly, the Red Army was well disciplined. This was largely due to the efforts of Leon Trotsky, the commissar of war. Secondly, the Whites were not unified. They had no common goal, and the different groups did not trust each other. The Communists, on the other hand, had a clear vision of a new socialist order. Thirdly, the Communists implemented a policy of war communism. This policy was used to ensure regular supplies for the Red Army. This meant government control of banks and industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under Communist control. The Communists also formed a new secret police, known as the Cheka. The Cheka began a Red Terror aimed at destroying those who opposed the new regime. Finally, the presence of foreign armies on Russian soil was used to stir up Russian patriotism. The Communists were able to call on patriotic Russians to fight foreign attempts to control the country. By 1921, the Communists had total control of Russia. Russia was now a centralized state dominated by a single party. The state was also hostile to the Allies, because the Allies had helped the White Army (the Communists enemies) in the civil war. In 1924 a new constitution established the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). Each republic had a government but they all had to be communist, and the system was run centrally by the Politburo. In 1924 Lenin died. 5

6 6. LENIN S SUCCESSION Trotsky was the most able and popular. He led the Red army. But he was too arrogant and he had been a Menshevik. But in the February Revolution of 1917 he puts his talents as an organizer and agitator in the service of the Bolshevik party and was elected president of the Petrograd Soviet. He played a central role in the conquest of power by Lenin; he was primarily responsible for the taking of the Winter Palace by the Bolsheviks, who established communist rule in Russia (October Revolution of 1917).Although Lenin occupied the pinnacle of power Trotsky played a crucial role in the Soviet government. As the first commissioner of Foreign Affairs of Bolshevik Russia ( ), he negotiated with the German Peace of Brest-Litovsk, which pulled the country out of World War I to respond to the desire for peace of the masses and concentrate on consolidation of the Revolution. He organized the Red Army in very difficult conditions and defeated in a long civil war the White armies ( ). His work was crucial for the survival of the first communist state in the world. Lenin pointed out to him as his successor before his death in 1924; but the ambition of Stalin, which had strong support in the party apparatus, prevented him from coming to power. Stalin was General Secretary of the party and according to Lenin he was too rude and ambitious. Trotsky defended the idea of "permanent revolution" as a means of achieving the Marxist-Leninist ideals (gradually spreading the revolution to Germany and other countries); while Stalin was opposed by the conservative view of consolidating the "socialism in one country '. Ideological differences, however, were little more than a pretext for Stalin to set away Trotsky from the direction in 1925, in 1927 the party expel, deport to Kazakhstan in 1928 and banish the country in Trotsky did not give up their revolutionary struggle, he wrote from exile in defense of their ideas.stalin made him murder by a Soviet agent (Ramon Mercader). 6

7 7. THE TERROR AND THE PURGES Joseph Jughashuili changed his name to Stalin (man of steel). He was the leader of Russia by 1930 and was determined to get rid of any rivals. Stalin ordered a purge of people he believed were involved in conspiracies against him. Soon the purges reached ordinary people. Anyone suspected of disloyalty to Stalin was taken away by the NKUD (the new secret police). Most were shot or sent to Labour Camps (gulags). By 1939 approximately 3 million people were dead, 9 million were political prisoners. Trotsky condemned Stalin s purges from his home in Mexico, calling for a new revolution (1937). Stalin ruled as a dictator: He controlled all information. Artists, writers, newspapers, radio, cinema had to follow the Party line and spread propaganda. History was re-written in order to Stalin became more important in the story of the Bolshevik Revolution than he was. Trotsky became a nonperson; his name was removed from history books, articles and even photographs. Under Stalin the state planned the industry and agriculture with a commission called Gosplan. A five year plan set targets for all basic industrial factories and workers. They started in In 10 years the USSR had almost doubled its industrial output but the price was misery and low living standards for Soviet workers. Private property disappeared totally. It was important to increase food production to supply workers in towns and cities. In 1929 Stalin began forced collectivization in all farms.some peasants refused this change and did not want to give up lands, especially the kulaks (richer peasants). Stalin called them enemies of the people. Around 10 million were shot or sent to Labour Camps, many died from starvation or cold. Many kulaks burned their crops and killed livestock. This caused a big famine and many people died. By 1937 collectivization was almost completed; kulaks had been eliminated and the peasants were afraid of Communist powers. 7

8 8. CONCLUSION: a) The Communist Party controlled everything in Russia, including the media and education system. Stalin used the state newspaper, Pravda, to control what Russian people learned, heard, read and saw. Stalin killed or deported to Siberia all those who did not agree with him. His secret police also used arbitrary arrests, torture, and mass executions to maintain his dictatorship. Anyone could be a victim of these killings, known as purges for no apparent reason. b) The idealistic ideas of Marx had turned into a system that was in many ways more terrifying than the rule by the tsars. There was no freedom in the new system. Forced labour created wealth for a limited number of people, while the lives of most of the citizens changed very little or got worse. TASKS: 1. How were peasants conditions of life by 1900 in Russia? 2. Was Tsar Nicolas II a democratic leader? Explain your answer. 3. Compare the 1905 and 1917 rebellions. How were they similar and different? 4. Define these words: Tsar, Duma, bolsheviks, cheka, gosplan, kulaks, force collectivization, gulags, dictator. 5. Do you think that, today, Anastasia s mystery could be possible? Explain your answer. 6. What were the main beliefs of the Communists? 7. What important part did Lenin play in the revolution? 8. What happened at Brest Litovsk? 9. Which ideas of Karl Marx were adopted by the Communist in the Russian Revolution? Explain them. 10. What were the main differences in ideas between Stalin and Trotsky? 11. They said: there would have been no revolution in Russia without the First world war. Give the main arguments to support this view. 12. Compare the work and importance of Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin. 8

Reading Essentials and Study Guide

Reading Essentials and Study Guide Chapter 16, Section 3 For use with textbook pages 514 519 THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION KEY TERMS soviets councils in Russia composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers (page 516) war communism

More information

UNIT 10 The Russian Revolution (1917)

UNIT 10 The Russian Revolution (1917) UNIT 10 (1917) o o Background o Tsar Nicholas II o The beginning of the revolution o Lenin's succession o Trotsky o Stalin o The terror and the purges Background In 1900 Russia was a poor country compared

More information

Revolution and Nationalism

Revolution and Nationalism Revolution and Nationalism 1900-1939 Revolutions in Russia Section 1 Long-term social unrest in Russia exploded in revolution, and ushered in the first Communist government. Czars Resist Change Romanov

More information

Chapter 14 Section 1. Revolutions in Russia

Chapter 14 Section 1. Revolutions in Russia Chapter 14 Section 1 Revolutions in Russia Revolutionary Movement Grows Industrialization stirred discontent among people Factories brought new problems Grueling working conditions, low wages, child labor

More information

Cruel, oppressive rule of the Czars for almost 100 years Social unrest for decades Ruthless treatment of peasants Small revolts amongst students and

Cruel, oppressive rule of the Czars for almost 100 years Social unrest for decades Ruthless treatment of peasants Small revolts amongst students and Cruel, oppressive rule of the Czars for almost 100 years Social unrest for decades Ruthless treatment of peasants Small revolts amongst students and soldiers that resulted in secret revolutionary groups

More information

Starter Activity Peace, Land, and Bread

Starter Activity Peace, Land, and Bread Starter Activity: Vladimir Lenin led a Russian Revolution promising the people Peace, Land, and Bread. Based on this slogan, what problems was Russia facing that would lead to a revolution? (Why were peace,

More information

the Russian Revolution in 1917? Warm Up Question: calling themselves communists gained

the Russian Revolution in 1917? Warm Up Question: calling themselves communists gained Essential Question: How did Vladimir Lenin & the Bolsheviks transform Russia during the Russian Revolution in 1917? Warm Up Question: Based on what you know about communism, why do you think people calling

More information

Revolution and Nationalism

Revolution and Nationalism Revolution and Nationalism 1900-1939 Revolutions in Russia Section 1 Long- term social unrest in Russia exploded in revolution, and ushered in the first Communist government. Czars Resist Change Romanov

More information

The Russian Revolution(s)

The Russian Revolution(s) The Russian Revolution(s) -1905-1921- Pre-Revolutionary Russia Only true autocracy left in Europe No type of representative political institutions, but did have instruments of oppression (secret police)

More information

Module 20.1: Revolution and Civil War in Russia

Module 20.1: Revolution and Civil War in Russia Module 20.1: Revolution and Civil War in Russia 1913 300 th anniversary of Romanov Dynasty 1914 Huge Russian Empire Eastern Europe to Pacific Ocean March 1917 first of two revolutions will topple Romanov

More information

Tsar Nicholas II and his familly

Tsar Nicholas II and his familly Tsar Nicholas II Nicholas II of Romanov family was Tsar at the start of the 1900s Was married to an Austrian, Tsarina Alexandra Had 4 daughters and 1 son Alexei Tsar Nicholas II and his familly Problems

More information

APEH Chapter 18.notebook February 09, 2015

APEH Chapter 18.notebook February 09, 2015 Russia Russia finally began industrializing in the 1880s and 1890s. Russia imposed high tariffs, and the state attracted foreign investors and sold bonds to build factories, railroads, and mines. The Trans

More information

1. This was Russia's first elected assembly

1. This was Russia's first elected assembly Russian Revolution Exam Choose the letter of the term or name that matches the description. soviet b. Nicholas II Bloody Sunday b. Duma Bolsheviks Ruso-Japanese War pogrom Mensheviks e. Trans-Siberian

More information

Chapter 14 Revolution and Nationalism. Section 1 Revolutions In Russia

Chapter 14 Revolution and Nationalism. Section 1 Revolutions In Russia Chapter 14 Revolution and Nationalism Section 1 Revolutions In Russia I. Czars Resist Change A. Czars Continue Autocratic Rule 1. Cruel and oppressive rule for most of the 19 th century caused widespread

More information

Russia in Revolution. Overview. Serfdom in Czarist Russia 6/1/2010. Chapter 28

Russia in Revolution. Overview. Serfdom in Czarist Russia 6/1/2010. Chapter 28 Russia in Revolution Chapter 28 Overview Russia struggled to reform Moves toward revolution Bolsheviks lead a 2 nd revolution Stalin becomes a dictator Serfdom in Czarist Russia Unfree Persons as a Percentage

More information

Section 5. Objectives

Section 5. Objectives Objectives Explain the causes of the March Revolution. Describe the goals of Lenin and the Bolsheviks in the November Revolution. Outline how the Communists defeated their opponents in Russia s civil war.

More information

Unit 2 Changes and Challenges: Part 1 - The Russian Revolution

Unit 2 Changes and Challenges: Part 1 - The Russian Revolution Unit 2 Changes and Challenges: Part 1 - The Russian Revolution Revolution=Radical Change At the beginning of the 20 th Century, Russia was ripe for change Over 95% of the population was rural/ peasantry

More information

General Overview of Communism & the Russian Revolution. AP World History Chapter 27b The Rise and Fall of World Communism (1917 Present)

General Overview of Communism & the Russian Revolution. AP World History Chapter 27b The Rise and Fall of World Communism (1917 Present) General Overview of Communism & the Russian Revolution AP World History Chapter 27b The Rise and Fall of World Communism (1917 Present) Communism: A General Overview Socialism = the belief that the economy

More information

Russian Revolution Workbook

Russian Revolution Workbook Russian Revolution Workbook Name: Per. # Unit 2 Russian Revolution Test Date: Unit Overview Score Workbook Score Warm Up Score 1 Revolutions Unit Overview Key Terms 1. Marxism 2. Communism 3. Bloody Sunday

More information

Russia. Revolutionary Russia

Russia. Revolutionary Russia Russia Revolutionary Russia Nicholas II & Alexandra Russia under Nicholas II Urbanized (13%) Educated (17,000 students) Populated (128 Million) Industrialized (#1 oil producer) Antiquated Social System

More information

The Romanov s were the Imperial Family of Russia

The Romanov s were the Imperial Family of Russia RUSSIAN REVOLUTION The Romanovs The Romanov s were the Imperial Family of Russia Imperial is essentially the same as Royal Family Russia was so vast, they called themselves the Russian Empire The family

More information

L/ ) Lesson: The Russian Revolution. Mr. M. Stratis, Esq. Garden City High School Global History & Geography m

L/ ) Lesson: The Russian Revolution. Mr. M. Stratis, Esq. Garden City High School Global History & Geography m Garden City High School Global History & Geography m Mr. M. Stratis, Esq. Lesson: The Russian Revolution Aim: What events brought about the Russian Revolution? 1. How was Tsar Nicholas II overthrown in

More information

The Russian Revolution and the Consolidation of the Soviet

The Russian Revolution and the Consolidation of the Soviet The Russian Revolution and the Consolidation of the Soviet Union 5 The Crisis of Tsarist* Russia and the First World War In the course of the 19th century, Russia experienced several revolutionary disturbances.

More information

Chapter 7: Rejecting Liberalism. Understandings of Communism

Chapter 7: Rejecting Liberalism. Understandings of Communism Chapter 7: Rejecting Liberalism Understandings of Communism * in communist ideology, the collective is more important than the individual. Communists also believe that the well-being of individuals is

More information

The Russian Revolution. Adapted from slides by Scott Masters Crestwood College

The Russian Revolution. Adapted from slides by Scott Masters Crestwood College The Russian Revolution Adapted from slides by Scott Masters Crestwood College Pre-Revolutionary Russia Only true autocracy left in Europe No type of representative political institutions Nicholas II became

More information

e. small bourgeoisie/proletariat 1. no union or strikes 2. strikes of 1890s 3. workers concentrated f. Constitutional Democratic party forms(cadets)

e. small bourgeoisie/proletariat 1. no union or strikes 2. strikes of 1890s 3. workers concentrated f. Constitutional Democratic party forms(cadets) Russian Revolution Intro: French Vs. Russian Rev. a. movements of liberation 1. addressed to the world 2. strong reaction 3. conflict to find new way b. differences 1. lead vs behind 2. middle class 3.

More information

In Your Notebook-- What do you remember about the causes of the Russian Revolution? What were the revolutionaries trying to achieve?

In Your Notebook-- What do you remember about the causes of the Russian Revolution? What were the revolutionaries trying to achieve? In Your Notebook-- What do you remember about the causes of the Russian Revolution? What were the revolutionaries trying to achieve? What were some of the major events of the revolution itself? What results

More information

Chapter 4: The Fall of Tsarism. Revolution

Chapter 4: The Fall of Tsarism. Revolution Chapter 4: The Fall of Tsarism Revolution What is a Revolution? A complete change in the way things are done (Agricultural Revolution, Industrial Revolution, Russian Revolution) Sometimes peaceful Sometimes

More information

Unit 7: The Rise of Totalitarianism

Unit 7: The Rise of Totalitarianism Unit 7: The Rise of Totalitarianism After WWI, many people in nations impacted by the Great War were willing to accept rule by dictators who controlled all aspects of society. In the 1920s and 1930s Russia,

More information

Why did revolution occur in Russia in March 1917? Why did Lenin and the Bolsheviks launch the November revolution?

Why did revolution occur in Russia in March 1917? Why did Lenin and the Bolsheviks launch the November revolution? Two Revolutions 1 in Russia Why did revolution occur in Russia in March 1917? Why did Lenin and the Bolsheviks launch the November revolution? How did the Communists defeat their opponents in Russia s

More information

The abandonment of the Constituent Assembly 1917

The abandonment of the Constituent Assembly 1917 The abandonment of the Constituent Assembly 1917! Lenin promised to hold elections for a Parliament to be known as the Constituent Assembly.! Renamed the Bolshevik Party as the Communist Party in order

More information

Russian Civil War

Russian Civil War Russian Civil War 1918-1921 Bolshevik Reforms During Civil War 1) Decree of Peace Led to the end of the war with Germany and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. 2) Decree of Land private property was abolished.

More information

Russian Revolution. Isabel Torralbo Talavera

Russian Revolution. Isabel Torralbo Talavera Russian Revolution Background Russia was the largest regime (land and population) in Europe. ECONOMY - SOCIETY - Weak, based on agriculture, slow industrial development opposite to others. - Lack of social

More information

Standards and

Standards and Standards 10.7.1 and 10.7.2 The Russian Revolution took place in November 1917 (October 1917 on the Russian calendar). This marks the date when Bolshevik Party forces took over the government offices in

More information

History of RUSSIA: St. Vladimir to Vladimir Putin Part 2. By Vladimir Hnízdo

History of RUSSIA: St. Vladimir to Vladimir Putin Part 2. By Vladimir Hnízdo History of RUSSIA: St. Vladimir to Vladimir Putin Part 2 By Vladimir Hnízdo It is a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. I cannot forecast to you the action of Russia. It is a riddle, wrapped

More information

From Lenin to Stalin: Part II. Building a Communist State in Russia

From Lenin to Stalin: Part II. Building a Communist State in Russia From Lenin to Stalin: Part II Building a Communist State in Russia DEFINITION: a classless, moneyless, stateless society based on common ownership of the means of production. Why were Russians ready to

More information

UNIT Y219 RUSSIA

UNIT Y219 RUSSIA UNIT Y219 RUSSIA 1894-1941 NOTE: BASED ON 2X 50 MINUTE LESSONS PER WEEK TERMS BASED ON 6 TERM YEAR. Key Topic Term Week Number Indicative Content Extended Content Resources The rule of Tsar Nicholas II

More information

UNIT 6 THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION

UNIT 6 THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION UNIT 6 THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION I; LONG-TERM CAUSES A. AUTOCRACY OF THE CZAR 1. Censorship 2. Religious and ethnic intolerance 3. Political oppression I; LONG-TERM CAUSES B. ECONOMIC PROBLEMS 1. Russia began

More information

TOTALITARIANISM. Part A. Two Despots

TOTALITARIANISM. Part A. Two Despots Part A TOTALITARIANISM [1] The author George Orwell wrote a book about a totalitarian society. the book was called 1984. In the book the people are controlled by a strict government that not only regulates

More information

Lenin and the Russian Revolution ( ) (Part I)

Lenin and the Russian Revolution ( ) (Part I) CHY-4U1/Unit 4: The World at War Intro: Lenin and the Russian Revolution (1900-1918) (Part I) The success of Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov (Lenin) and his Bolshevik followers in taking control of Russia in November

More information

3 Themes in Russian History

3 Themes in Russian History History of Russia 3 Themes in Russian History 1. Expansion east and west From 800 AD to 1900s the land Russia controlled increased greatly because of their powerful leaders 2. Harsh treatment of common

More information

**REVIEW: CHAPTER 10 NATIONALISM**

**REVIEW: CHAPTER 10 NATIONALISM** 10-4: Not breaking Russia apart but conflict that spills over Main Idea **REVIEW: CHAPTER 10 NATIONALISM** In the 1800s, Italian states rebelled against Austria and unified as the Kingdom of Italy. Learning

More information

Module 20.2: The Soviet Union Under Stalin

Module 20.2: The Soviet Union Under Stalin Module 20.2: The Soviet Union Under Stalin Terms and People command economy an economy in which government officials make all basic economic decisions collectives large farms owned and operated by peasants

More information

NATIONAL 5: HISTORY HOMEWORK ANSWER FILES

NATIONAL 5: HISTORY HOMEWORK ANSWER FILES NATIONAL 5: HISTORY HOMEWORK ANSWER FILES SCHOOL 1. RUSSIAN SOCIETY 2. THE TSARIST STATE 3. THE 1905 REVOLUTION 4. THE DUMA 5. RUSSIA AT WAR 6. THE FEBRUARY REVOLUTION 7. THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION 8. THE

More information

NCERT Solutions for Class 9th Social Science History : Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russians Revolution

NCERT Solutions for Class 9th Social Science History : Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russians Revolution NCERT Solutions for Class 9th Social Science History : Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russians Revolution Activities Question 1. Imagine that you are a striking worker in 1905, who is being tried

More information

The Russian Revolution. 10/5/2018 Bennifield

The Russian Revolution. 10/5/2018 Bennifield The Russian Revolution Bennifield 1 Bennifield 2 STANDARD The student will explain conflict and change in Europe to the 21 st century. Bennifield 3 Essential Question How did the Russian Revolution contribute

More information

Welcome, WHAP Comrades!

Welcome, WHAP Comrades! Welcome, WHAP Comrades! Monday, April 2, 2018 Have paper and something to write with out for notes and be ready to begin! This Week s WHAP Agenda MONDAY 4/3: Russian and Chinese Revolutions TUESDAY 4/4:

More information

Document 1: Russia Before WWI. Document 2: Communism What is it?

Document 1: Russia Before WWI. Document 2: Communism What is it? Document 1: Russia Before WWI Russia was an autocracy. The ruler Of Russia was the Tsar and technically everything that happened in Russia was his responsibility which he shared with no one and was responsible

More information

Unit 4. Industrial Revolution, Russian Revolution, and Chinese Revolution

Unit 4. Industrial Revolution, Russian Revolution, and Chinese Revolution Unit 4 Industrial Revolution, Russian Revolution, and Chinese Revolution Day 4: Russian Revolution Starter: March 20th and 21st In your own words, what is the difference between capitalism, socialism and

More information

Date Period. Section 2 pg , Russia Under the Czars and The Beginning of Unrest : Group A

Date Period. Section 2 pg , Russia Under the Czars and The Beginning of Unrest : Group A Name Date Period With a partner, brainstorm three questions you could ask the class that would help them understand the important details of the image, what is happening, and its connection to the Russian

More information

I. The Russian Empire A. The Russian Empire traces its roots back to the principality of Muscovy, which began to expand in the 1400s. B.

I. The Russian Empire A. The Russian Empire traces its roots back to the principality of Muscovy, which began to expand in the 1400s. B. Unit 8 SG 2 Name Date I. The Russian Empire A. The Russian Empire traces its roots back to the principality of Muscovy, which began to expand in the 1400s. B. Ivan III (the Great) married Zoe Palaeologus,

More information

Russia Continued. Competing Revolutions and the Birth of the USSR

Russia Continued. Competing Revolutions and the Birth of the USSR Russia Continued Competing Revolutions and the Birth of the USSR Review: 3 Main Causes of Russian Revolution of 1917 Peasant Poverty Farmers: indebted and barely above subsistence level Outdated agricultural

More information

Chapters 30 and 31: The Interwar Period ( )

Chapters 30 and 31: The Interwar Period ( ) Chapters 30 and 31: The Interwar Period (1919-1938) Postwar Germany Unstable democracies Weimar Republic in Germany Democratic government formed after WWI Was blamed for signing Treaty of Versailles Cost

More information

SOC 30-1 Readings: Chapter 5 parts on Russia. SOC 30-2 Readings: Chapter 7, pg

SOC 30-1 Readings: Chapter 5 parts on Russia. SOC 30-2 Readings: Chapter 7, pg SOC 30-1 Readings: Chapter 5 parts on Russia SOC 30-2 Readings: Chapter 7, pg. 161-172 Nature of Totalitarian (Dictatorship) Regimes: Totalitarian regimes are responding to what they see as dangerous and

More information

Russia and Beyond

Russia and Beyond Russia 1894-1945 and Beyond Why begin here? George Orwell wrote his novel during WWII between November 1943-February 1944 in order to, in his words, expose the Soviet myth in a story that could be easily

More information

Second Industrial Revolution

Second Industrial Revolution Second Industrial Revolution 1870-1914 First Industrial Rev 1780-1850 Textiles, steam, coal, iron, railroads British supremacy Factory life that significantly altered the family, home, urban conditions,

More information

d. 4. Sergei Witte a. Policy maker who served under the Czars of Russia pushed for heavy industrialization b. Drafted the October Manifesto c.

d. 4. Sergei Witte a. Policy maker who served under the Czars of Russia pushed for heavy industrialization b. Drafted the October Manifesto c. 1. Alexander II a. Emperor of Russia (1855 1881) b. Enacted some liberal reforms i. Freed all of the serfs in 1861!!! ii. Reorganized judicial system, abolished corporal punishment, imposed universal military

More information

World History

World History 2.1.1 Terms Marxism: Economic and political philosophy named for Karl Marx. It is known as scientific (as opposed to utopian) socialism. Marxism has had a profound impact on contemporary culture. Modern

More information

History Revolutions: Russian Teach Yourself Series Topic 3: Factors that contributed to the revolution

History Revolutions: Russian Teach Yourself Series Topic 3: Factors that contributed to the revolution History Revolutions: Russian Teach Yourself Series Topic 3: Factors that contributed to the revolution A: Level 14, 474 Flinders Street Melbourne VIC 3000 T: 1300 134 518 W: tssm.com.au E: info@tssm.com.au

More information

Unit II: Challenges & Changes

Unit II: Challenges & Changes Unit II: Challenges & Changes This Unit: Russian Revolution 2.1.1 2.1.9 Key players 3 Revolts Economic Reforms (Lenin vs. Stalin) Rise of Facism 2.2.1 2.2.8 Key Players (Hitler & Mussolini) Characteristics

More information

Factories double from Trans-Siberian Railway finally finished in More and more people work in factories

Factories double from Trans-Siberian Railway finally finished in More and more people work in factories World history Factories double from 1863-1900 Trans-Siberian Railway finally finished in 1916 More and more people work in factories o Terrible conditions, child labor, very low pay o Unions were illegal

More information

The Russian Revolution. Peace, Bread, Land, Almost

The Russian Revolution. Peace, Bread, Land, Almost Name: Period: 1 2 5 6 8 The Russian Revolution VI Peace, Bread, Land, Almost Purpose: Could the October Revolution have succeeded without the pragmatism of Lenin and ideology of Trotsky? Part One: Russian

More information

History Revolutions: Russia Teach Yourself Series Topic 3: Trigger factors that contributed to the revolution

History Revolutions: Russia Teach Yourself Series Topic 3: Trigger factors that contributed to the revolution History Revolutions: Russia Teach Yourself Series Topic 3: Trigger factors that contributed to the revolution A: Level 14, 474 Flinders Street Melbourne VIC 3000 T: 1300 134 518 W: tssm.com.au E: info@tssm.com.au

More information

Chapter 2 SOCIALISM IN EUROPE AND THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION

Chapter 2 SOCIALISM IN EUROPE AND THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION Chapter 2 SOCIALISM IN EUROPE AND THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION Q1) What were the view points of the liberals? i) Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. Liberals also opposed the uncontrolled

More information

Chapter Russia and Central Europe

Chapter Russia and Central Europe Chapter 17-18 Russia and Central Europe Natural Environments Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus cover 12% of the world s land area. Russia is the world s largest country. The Siberian rivers (Ob, Yenisey, and

More information

Topic 3: The Rise and Rule of Single-Party States (USSR and Lenin/Stalin) Pipes Chapter 4

Topic 3: The Rise and Rule of Single-Party States (USSR and Lenin/Stalin) Pipes Chapter 4 Topic 3: The Rise and Rule of Single-Party States (USSR and Lenin/Stalin) Pipes Chapter 4 Major Theme: Origins and Nature of Authoritarian and Single-Party States Conditions That Produced Single-Party

More information

A Level History. Independent Summer Learning Introductory Assignment

A Level History. Independent Summer Learning Introductory Assignment A Level History Independent Summer Learning Introductory Assignment Introduction During the two year History A Level course you will study two units and complete 1 piece of coursework. The Units will focus

More information

(Trotsky, Tolstoy, Gorky) 15. A group of thinkers in Russia called... stood for absolute individualism.

(Trotsky, Tolstoy, Gorky) 15. A group of thinkers in Russia called... stood for absolute individualism. 6 RUSSIAN REVOLUTION Q.1. (A) Complete the following statements by choosing appropriate alternatives from those given in the brackets : *1. Karl Marx was a... Philosopher. (Russian, German, Polish) *2.

More information

30.2 Stalinist Russia

30.2 Stalinist Russia 30.2 Stalinist Russia Introduction - Stalin dramatically transformed the government of the Soviet Union. - Determined that the Soviet Union should find its place both politically & economically among the

More information

The Rise of Totalitarian leaders as a Response to the Great Depression NEW POLITICAL PARTIES IN EUROPE BEFORE WWII!!

The Rise of Totalitarian leaders as a Response to the Great Depression NEW POLITICAL PARTIES IN EUROPE BEFORE WWII!! The Rise of Totalitarian leaders as a Response to the Great Depression NEW POLITICAL PARTIES IN EUROPE BEFORE WWII!! COMMUNISM AND THE SOVIET UNION The problems that existed in Germany, Italy, Japan and

More information

NCERT Class 9 History Chapter 2: Socialism in Europe and the Russia YouTube Lecture Handouts

NCERT Class 9 History Chapter 2: Socialism in Europe and the Russia YouTube Lecture Handouts Examrace Examrace 289K Login & Manage NCERT Class 9 History Chapter 2: Socialism in Europe and the Russia YouTube Lecture Handouts Get video tutorial on: https://www.youtube.com/c/examrace Watch video

More information

Part 1: Main Ideas 256 UNIT 4, CHAPTER 14. Form C. Write the letter of the best answer. (4 points each)

Part 1: Main Ideas 256 UNIT 4, CHAPTER 14. Form C. Write the letter of the best answer. (4 points each) Date CHAPTER 14 CHAPTER TEST Revolution and Nationalism Form C Part 1: Main Ideas Write the letter of the best answer. (4 points each) 1. How did the reigns of Alexander III and Nicholas II help pave the

More information

Revolutions in Russia

Revolutions in Russia 1 Revolutions in Russia MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES REVOLUTION Long-term social unrest in Russia exploded in revolution, and ushered in the first Communist government. The Communist Party

More information

Concerns raised by the midterm exams:

Concerns raised by the midterm exams: History 104: Europe from Napoleon to the Present Concerns raised by the midterm exams: copying material from slides without understanding it poor or incomplete note taking not reading or understanding

More information

Standard 7-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the causes and effects of world conflicts in the first half of the twentieth century.

Standard 7-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the causes and effects of world conflicts in the first half of the twentieth century. Standard 7-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the causes and effects of world conflicts in the first half of the twentieth century. 7-4.4: Compare the ideologies of socialism, communism,

More information

Joseph Stalin: Early life

Joseph Stalin: Early life Joseph Stalin: Early life Born Joseph Djugashvili in Georgia Family were freed serfs Went to a seminary to train to be a priest 1894, later expelled STALIN link to wikipedia page Involvement with revolutionary

More information

SOCIALISM IN EUROPE AND THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION

SOCIALISM IN EUROPE AND THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION 2 QUESTION BANK IN SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS-IX (TERM-I) SOCIALISM IN EUROPE AND THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION CONCEPTS THE AGE OF SOCIAL CHANGE The French Revolution opened up the possibility of creating a dramatic

More information

Russia and the Soviet Union in the 19 th and 20 th Century

Russia and the Soviet Union in the 19 th and 20 th Century Russia and the Soviet Union in the 19 th and 20 th Century Alexander II (1855 1881) THE REFORMER Recognized the major issue of serfdom and the problems it created 1861 (when the U.S. was beginning the

More information

History Revolutions: Russian Teach Yourself Series Topic 1: Chronology of key events

History Revolutions: Russian Teach Yourself Series Topic 1: Chronology of key events History Revolutions: Russian Teach Yourself Series Topic 1: Chronology of key events A: Level 14, 474 Flinders Street Melbourne VIC 3000 T: 1300 134 518 W: tssm.com.au E: info@tssm.com.au TSSM 2015 Page

More information

RUSSIA: INDUSTRIALIZATION AND REVOLUTION ( ) AP World History: Chapter 23b

RUSSIA: INDUSTRIALIZATION AND REVOLUTION ( ) AP World History: Chapter 23b RUSSIA: INDUSTRIALIZATION AND REVOLUTION (1750-1914) AP World History: Chapter 23b Russia: Transformation from Above In the U.S. = social and economic change has always come from society as people sought

More information

Georgia High School Graduation Test Tutorial. World History from World War I to World War II

Georgia High School Graduation Test Tutorial. World History from World War I to World War II Georgia High School Graduation Test Tutorial World History from World War I to World War II Causes of World War I 1. Balkan Nationalism Causes of World War I 2. Entangled Alliances Causes of World War

More information

Chapter 27 NOTES. RPC: How might internal dissent in European states have led to World War I?

Chapter 27 NOTES. RPC: How might internal dissent in European states have led to World War I? Chapter 27 NOTES Lesson 1 Sequencing: Use a sequence chain like the one below to list the events leading up to WWI. Archduke Ferdinand assassinated; Partial mobilization of Russian army; Germany declared

More information

YEAR 12 MODERN HISTORY 2015

YEAR 12 MODERN HISTORY 2015 BELRIDGE SECONDARY COLLEGE YEAR 2 MODERN HISTORY 205 Modern History enables students to become critical thinkers and helps inform their judgements and actions in a rapidly changing world. Students are

More information

ROBERSON MUSEUM AND SCIENCE CENTER

ROBERSON MUSEUM AND SCIENCE CENTER ROBERSON MUSEUM AND SCIENCE CENTER Pre-Visit Anastasia: Countdown to the Russian Revolution Grade Level: 6 through Adult New York State Standards: M S & T 2, 4, 5, 7 Pennsylvania State Standards: S & T

More information

Ascent of the Dictators. Mussolini s Rise to Power

Ascent of the Dictators. Mussolini s Rise to Power Ascent of the Dictators Mussolini s Rise to Power Benito Mussolini was born in Italy in 1883. During his early life he worked as a schoolteacher, bricklayer, and chocolate factory worker. In December 1914,

More information

The Communist Revolution in Russia MARCH OF THE TITANS - A HISTORY OF THE WHITE RACE

The Communist Revolution in Russia MARCH OF THE TITANS - A HISTORY OF THE WHITE RACE The Communist Revolution in Russia MARCH OF THE TITANS - A HISTORY OF THE WHITE RACE Chapter 60: The October Revolution: Communism in Russia The two uprisings in Imperial Russia, in March and October 1917,

More information

1. Militarism 2. Alliances 3. Imperialism 4. Nationalism

1. Militarism 2. Alliances 3. Imperialism 4. Nationalism 1. Militarism 2. Alliances 3. Imperialism 4. Nationalism Policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war Led to arms race Different nations formed military alliances with one another

More information

Chapter 30 Revolution and Nationalism

Chapter 30 Revolution and Nationalism Chapter 30 Revolution and Nationalism 30-1 Russia Czarist Autocratic Rule Alexander III 1881-1894 Ruthless secret police Oppressed nationalist minorities Jewish pogroms Nicholas II 1894-1918 Industrializes

More information

World War I. The Great War, The War to End All Wars

World War I. The Great War, The War to End All Wars World War I { The Great War, The War to End All Wars M Militarism: Fascination with war and a strong military A Alliances: Agreements among varying nations to help each other out I Imperialism: Building

More information

AP European History Unit 9.2. The Russian Empire and the Russian Revolution:

AP European History Unit 9.2. The Russian Empire and the Russian Revolution: AP European History Unit 9.2 The Russian Empire and the Russian Revolution: 1815-1920 I. Review: Russia from 1815-1848 A. Tsar Alexander I (r. 1801-1825) 1. Initially favored some liberal ideals and Enlightened

More information

Specific Curriculum Outcomes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes Specific Curriculum Outcomes 1.1 The student will be expected to draw upon primary and/or secondary sources to demonstrate an understanding of the causes of World War I. 1.1.1 Define: imperialism, nationalism,

More information

WACE Modern History. Published Jan 3, Modern History ATAR Russia and the Soviet Union. By Yasmin (99.2 ATAR)

WACE Modern History. Published Jan 3, Modern History ATAR Russia and the Soviet Union. By Yasmin (99.2 ATAR) WACE Modern History Year 2016 Mark 93.50 Pages 72 Published Jan 3, 2017 Modern History ATAR Russia and the Soviet Union By Yasmin (99.2 ATAR) Your notes author, Yasmin. Yasmin achieved an ATAR of 99.2

More information

RUSSIA S LEADERS. Click map to view Russia overview video.

RUSSIA S LEADERS. Click map to view Russia overview video. RUSSIA S LEADERS Click map to view Russia overview video. CZAR NICHOLAS 1894-1917 Czar Nicholas Romanov II the last of the czars. Made attempts to modernize, not successful Russia defeated in Russo-Japanese

More information

Comparative Politics: Domestic Responses to Global Challenges, Seventh Edition. by Charles Hauss. Chapter 9: Russia

Comparative Politics: Domestic Responses to Global Challenges, Seventh Edition. by Charles Hauss. Chapter 9: Russia Comparative Politics: Domestic Responses to Global Challenges, Seventh Edition by Charles Hauss Chapter 9: Russia Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, students should be able to: describe

More information

Russian History. Lecture #1 Ancient History The Romanov s

Russian History. Lecture #1 Ancient History The Romanov s Russian History Lecture #1 Ancient History The Romanov s Outline Russia Lecture #1 Ancient Russia Settlement of Russia Yaroslav the Wise Mongol Invasion of Russia Retaking Russia Ivan the Great Ivan the

More information

The Rise of Dictators

The Rise of Dictators The Rise of Dictators DICTATORS THREATEN WORLD PEACE For many European countries the end of World War I was the beginning of revolutions at home, economic depression and the rise of powerful dictators

More information

World War I. The Great War, The War to End All Wars

World War I. The Great War, The War to End All Wars World War I { The Great War, The War to End All Wars M Militarism: Fascination with war and a strong military A Alliances: Agreements among varying nations to help each other out I Imperialism: Building

More information

The red Scare. Background. Background 12/12/2014. Could it happen here!?

The red Scare. Background. Background 12/12/2014. Could it happen here!? The red Scare Could it happen here!? At the beginning of WWI, Russia was still ruled by Tsar Nicholas II who, like Kaiser Wilhelm in Germany, was an autocrat (like a king, or emperor). If you have ever

More information

INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL FARM. Buzan, Ballard, Novak, McGlothlin, Millhouse

INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL FARM. Buzan, Ballard, Novak, McGlothlin, Millhouse INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL FARM Buzan, Ballard, Novak, McGlothlin, Millhouse Where We ve Been Where We ve Been GOVERNMENT, is the idea that a system can regulate, organize, rule, or control a community or

More information

(3) parliamentary democracy (2) ethnic rivalries

(3) parliamentary democracy (2) ethnic rivalries 1) In the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin governed by means of secret police, censorship, and purges. This type of government is called (1) democracy (2) totalitarian 2) The Ancient Athenians are credited

More information