e. small bourgeoisie/proletariat 1. no union or strikes 2. strikes of 1890s 3. workers concentrated f. Constitutional Democratic party forms(cadets)

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1 Russian Revolution Intro: French Vs. Russian Rev. a. movements of liberation 1. addressed to the world 2. strong reaction 3. conflict to find new way b. differences 1. lead vs behind 2. middle class 3. revolutionaries in Russia 4. old order not returned in Russia 5. acceptance c. in both Asia and Europe Chapter 91 I. Russia after 1881 a. tsarist autocracy with small westernized elite and peasants 1. serfs fre ed in intelligentsia b. Alexander III pushes Russification 1. attacks opposition and Jews 2. Pobiedonostsev - Holy Synod c. Russia was a part of Europe through works of art 1. Tolstoy/Tchaikovski d. Industrial Revolution takes hold after 1880s

2 1. European investment 2. infrastructure 3. gold standard 4. no tool or chemical plants 5. most industry in foreign hands or government 6. more exports e. small bourgeoisie/proletariat 1. no union or strikes 2. strikes of 1890s 3. workers concentrated f. Constitutional Democratic party forms(cadets) 1. wanted parliament g. peasants, 4/5 of pop, lived in communes(mirs) 1. sold crops to pay debt/taxes 2. paid for industrialization 3. feared private property h. land hunger a problem 1. mirs growing 2. feared private property 3. kulaks II. Revolutionary parties a. peasants and intelligentsia sources of discontent 1. peasants vs. gentry 2. intelligentsia vs. tsar b. who was going to be the army? 1. peasants or workers 2. was capitalism needed

3 c. many intelligentsia populist 1. interested in peasants problems 2. admired "mir" and Marx 3. peasants could be revolutionary class 4. form Social Revolutionary party d. many populist became Marxist under Russian Social Democratic party 1. started by Plekhanov and Amelrod e. Lenin 1. quiet childhood 2. brother killed 3. three years in Siberia 4. lived in W Europe f. Marxist start Social Democratic Labor Party 1. international movement 2. oriented towards Europe 3. capitalism first 4. distrusted peasants 5. did not like violence III. The Split a. Bolsheviks vs. Mensheviks 1. Lenin leader of Bolshevicks(1903) 2. hards and softs b. Lenin believed: 1. small revolutionary elite 2.centralized party 3. purges 4. impose their views

4 5. no autonomy for different groups c. Lenin followed Marx plus "imperialism and uneven capitalism" 1. captialism develops at different times 2. imperialism is highest stage 3. imperialist wars d. added more as an activist 1. small group must impose on the masses e. party important to Lenin Chapter 92 I. Backround to 1905 Rev. a. three parties without followers 1. no elections 2. some signs of discontent b. Nicholas II narrow minded, autocracy only way 1. no concessions c. War with Japan a disaster 1. Plehve thought war would help 1. government seen as incompetent d. Bloody Sunday beginning of the end for tsar 1. people protesting for reforms 2. fired on by troops 3. tsar not their friend e. revolts and strikes break out Soviets form

5 1. all wanted representation 2. peasants rose up f. General strike in Oct g. Strikes in October force tsar to issue October Manifesto 1. constitution, civil liberties, and Duma promised 2. divided opposition 3. middle class drops out/ order is restored II. The Duma ( ) a. no control over foreign policy, budget, government personnel b. tsar was not going to allow people to participate c. Social Democrats and autocracy lovers boycott Duma 1. Cadets take control 2. shut down after two months 2. members try to get revolution going again, but fail d. New Duma in socialist elected 2. Cadets feared socialist 3. shut down when 50 socialist arrested e. following Dumas did little 1. more conservative III. Stolypin Reforms

6 a. As chief minister, Stolypin wanted to make propertied classes their friends 1. reforms for peasants 2. easier to buy/sell land 2. brought about trend towards private property and independent farming 3. mir not dead 4. more kulaks/ gentry still in control b. many including Lenin feared Stolypin's reforms 1. he is shot c. Before war, Russia slowly moving towards the West. 1. becoming industrialized 2. would there ever be a revolution Chapter 93 I. End of Tsardom a. army had no personal conviction 1. minorities upset b. no cooperation between people and government 1. people more concerned about government mismanagement 2. Tannenberg and Masurian Lakes 3. industry mobilized, but tsar afraid of own people 4. people become conscious of power 5. Rasputin

7 c. as dissatisfaction over war and govt. mounts, tsar arms allies 1. duma suspended twice 2. people consider coup d. food riot on March 8, mutiny among troops 2. Duma committee and Petrograd Soviet fight for city e. Provisional Govt. set up 1. March 17, 1917 tsar abdicates 2. Kerensky head of govt II. Bolshevik Revolutions a. govt. calls for elections and continues war 1. promised distribution of land 2. peasants in army leave to get land; discipline collapsed b. Lenin and socialist take sides with Petrograd Soviet c. Kerensky takes control of Provisional Govt. 1. blamed for attack on Petrograd 2. uncertain of political support 3. extreme speakers get a forum d. Bolsheviks promised 1. peace 2. redistribution of land 3. committee of workers control factories 4. soviets supreme power

8 e. Bolsheviks win majorities in Soviets f. Lenin, Trotskt, and Stalin push for take over 1. Nov g. Push for peace and abolish all landlord property 1. 1/3 vote in Constituent Assembly III. Civil War a. Lenin believed war would bring revolution in other countries b. civil war breaks out: Bolsheviks vs. anti-bolsheviks independence movements foreign intervention 1. each wanted peasant support 2. political police(kgb) set up 3. Trosky heads Red Army makes it a solid force c. class war breaks out over food 1. workers vs. peasants d. allies send troops 1. Japan takes land in the east e. anti-bolsheviks could not unite 1. antagonized peasants 2. patriotism

9 f. red terror Chapter 94 I. Government a Union of Soviet Socialist Republics created b. anybody could join or leave c. autonomy and force used to keep republics in line 1. Russians dominate d. 100 languages 50 nationalities 1. political and economic rights limited 2. never really happy e. parallelism - party / state 1. state bottom up with Soviets 2. Congress of Soviets makes law and forms ministry f. changes in more direct elections 2. Nationalities vs Union g. only the communist party 1. top/down 2. central committee at top 3. Politburo 4. general secretary h. party grows in numbers 1. uniformity enforced/ prevents risk-taking 2. cells

10 i. party rules controls state 1. communist gain social status III. New Economic Policy a. because of famine compromise with capitalism had to be made 1. private trading allowed to get food 2. favored big farmers and created new rich 3. no progress IV. Stalin and Trotsky a. power struggle after Lenin's death in Stalin working to gain power b. Trotsky wanted to spread revolution 1. also better known 2. closer to Lenin c. Stalin wanted to socialism in one country 1. party head 2. threw Trotsky out of country 3. Trotsky forced out at Party Congress Chapter 95 Stalin a. Stalin put many of Trotsky's plans into effect using 5 year plans 1. central planning used 2. all economic life should be treated as a single factory according to Engels

11 b. countries did it during WWI c. wanted to make country self-sufficient d. Gosplan controlled everything 1. command economy 2. many problems 3. bureaucrats e. First plan wanted to industrialize without loans II. agricultural revolution had to come first. a. collectivization begins 1. kulaks(big farmers) erased 2. livestock killed 3. even with famine, food sent out of country 4. capital used 5. surplus could be controlled 6. anything over quota could be sold at market 7. output not increased 8. workers allowed to move to cities b. no incentive to improve 1. life like a mir III. Industry a. expert help and equipment from west used at first b. self-sufficiency goal

12 1. Japan and Germany show hostility c. greatest rate of growth ever from d. industry moved east of Urals 1. first time in inner Asia 2. transportation had to improve to and from new areas d. stats exaggerated 1. shoddy plants 2. output per capita behind west IV. Social Cost of Plan a. people had to sacrifice to build industry 1. go without 2. 1/3 of income invested each year 3. promised a better life through propaganda b. benefits 1. no unemployment 2. no misuse of women and children 3. poverty b. no economic equality 1. there were classes 2. labor heroes c. loose more than job for poor output d. government supervised everything V. Purge Trials of 1930s

13 a constitution democratic b. Stalin starts purges(great Terror) 1. internal problems in party(bukharin/trotsky) 2. 1/3 of members expelled c. assassination and violence used 1. Kirov/Tukhachevski 2. nobody safe 3. trials 4. dictatorship reinforced, no rivals Chapter 96 I. Socialism and WWI a. marxist saw reform through party politics b. radical socialist believed class war only war worth fighting 1. capitalist real enemy c. Zimmerwald program 1. wanted peace 2. left wanted revolution d. when Lenin comes to power believed revolution would spread e. some sparks but no fire 1. Spartacist movement 2. Bela Kun f. socialist and social democrats can't agree 1. Russia tries to help left movements

14 II. Third International(Comintern) a. Russian communist begin Third International 1. in line with Marx 2. taking dictatorship to the proletariat b. 37 countries represented at 1920 congress 1. wanted to isolate moderates and bring revolution to all 2. hated socialist 3. controlled by Central Committee c. Twenty-one points by Lenin 1. called communist 2. infiltrate unions and army 3. purges c. Russians trained others to spread revolution 1. agents used 2. existence threatening 3. unite to fight fascism d. 1/6 of the world Maxist 1. popular in Asia 2. didn't like Soviet methods 3. modernize without foreign capital

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