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1 Welcome, WHAP Comrades! Monday, April 2, 2018 Have paper and something to write with out for notes and be ready to begin!

2 This Week s WHAP Agenda MONDAY 4/3: Russian and Chinese Revolutions TUESDAY 4/4: China in the 20th century WEDNESDAY 4/5: Cold War lecture THURSDAY 4/6: Communism/Cold War document activity FRIDAY 4/7: Communism/Cold War Harkness Discussion (over ALL of Ch. 21) SATURDAY 4/8: WHAP MOCK EXAM: 8am-11:30am in the RHS Cafeteria MONDAY 4/9: Communism/Cold War Timeline due (see website for instructions)

3 WHAP MOCK EXAM INFO Date: Saturday, April 7, 2017 Location: Richland High School Cafeteria Starts: 8:00 AM (Plan to arrive no later than 7:50am) Ends: Most likely around 11:30am, no later than noon Bring: #2 pencils, blue or black ink pens, water/snack (if you d like) **IF you cannot make it on Saturday, you must tell me ASAP. I will decide when the make-up opportunity will be. **You MUST take the Mock Exam- it is a TEST GRADE!

4 HOW GOOD IS YOUR RUSSIAN KNOWLEDGE? There have been 3 very influential Vladimirs in Russian history (at least). Can you name them?

5 Prince Vladimir of Kiev (900s) Vladimir Lenin (early 20th century) Vladimir Putin (current President of Russia)

6 THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION (1917) How did Russia go from THIS TO THIS?

7 THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION (1917) What were the causes of the Russian Revolution in 1917? Long-term causes Short-term causes

8 THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION (1917) LONG-TERM CAUSES: SHORT-TERM CAUSES: Cruel, oppresive rule of czars Widespread social unrest Government censorship/restrictions on personal freedoms Government persecution of minority groups Problems with rapid industrialization Revolutionary groups gained influence Weak, distant leadership Series of military losses Discontent over slow pace of reform Reluctance of czar to share power Russia was devastated by World War I- public grew upset with the war Czar unable/unwilling to deal with Russia s problems Inflation Decreasing food and fuel supplies Soldiers mutinied Growing influence of socialism/revolutionary groups

9 Military Difficulties ( ) Crimean War ( Russian loss) Russo-Japanese War ( Russian loss) World War I ( Russia surrendered) WHY did Russia have so much difficulty militarily?

10 Bloody Sunday (1905) Crowd of workers approached the czar s winter palace in St. Petersburg asking for better working conditions, more freedom, and an elected legislature Czar s soldiers fired on the crowd

11 Reluctant Change: The Duma Is Created (1905) Protests after Bloody Sunday prompted the czar to agree to the creation of The Duma, Russia s first parliament Czar Nicholas II dissolved the Duma after 10 weeks

12 THE MARCH REVOLUTION (MARCH 1917) Women textile workers in Petrograd led a strike, others followed (including soldiers) Exploded into a general uprising Czar Nicholas II stepped down Leaders of the Duma established a provisional government, a moderate government led by Alexander Kerensky

13 UNDER THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Russia remained in WWI Conditions inside Russia worsened- peasants wanted land, city workers became more radical Socialist revolutionaries formed soviets (local councils made up of workers, peasants, and soldiers)

14 THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION (NOVEMBER 1917) Vladimir Lenin returned to Russia, led the radical Bolsheviks (radical communist revolutionaries) to power Slogans: All power to the Soviets, Peace, Land, and Bread Armed factory workers (Red Guards) forced power from the provisional government

15 THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION (NOVEMBER 1917) What were the effects of the October Revolution?

16 EFFECTS OF THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION Russia withdrew from WWI Lenin ordered that all farmland be distributed among the peasants, workers be given control of factories Royal family murdered Russian Civil War: Red Army (Bolsheviks) fought enemies at home (White Army)- Bolsheviks won (led by Leon Trotsky)- solidified power

17 THE SOVIET UNION UNDER LENIN: Peace, economic recovery in the 1920s: government controlled banks and most major industries, but allowed some private ownership, foreign investment- this was Lenin s New Economic Policy (NEP) Lenin organized Russia into several self-governing republics under the central government (became the USSR) There was a constitution, but the Communist party held all the power Lenin died in 1924; Joseph Stalin took control- became a dictator with absolute

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20 THE SOVIET UNION UNDER STALIN: Seized absolute power and turned the USSR into a totalitarian state Launched a series of purges against his enemies (either killed them or sent them to labor camps)- the Great Purge of killed between 8-13 million Religion was discouraged, followers persecuted Developed a command economy under Five Year Plans- focused on industrial production instead of consumer production Collectivized farming- grouped private farms into government-owned farms

21 THE SOVIET UNION UNDER STALIN: Personal freedoms were suppressed, and consumer goods were in short supply People learned new skills required for the industrialized economy Women gained more status- entered the workforce in larger numbers, many had skilled careers (like doctors), but were still expected to bear children and do household work

22

23 CHANGES IN CHINA: Background: It is said that by 1900 China was ripe for revolution. Why? (What had China gone through in the 19th century?)

24 CHANGES IN CHINA: The Kuomintang, or Nationalist Party, wanted modernization and nationalization in China- led by Sun Yixian 1911: The Revolutionary Alliance (a forerunner of the Kuomintang) succeeded in overthrowing the last Qing emperor 1912: Sun Yixian became president of the new Republic of China Focused on nationalism (ending foreign control), people s rights (democracy), and people s livelihood (economic security for all) Sun Yixian

25 CHANGES IN CHINA: Sun Yixian lacked the authority and military support to secure national unity Sun Yixian turned over the presidency to a powerful general (Yuan Shikai)- he betrayed the democratic ideals of the 1911 revolution- sparked local revolts When Yuan Shikai died in 1916, civil war broke out- local warlords, military leaders gained power 1917: China joined the Allies in WWI, hoped to re-claim land from Germany after the war Yuan Shikai

26 CHANGES IN CHINA: The Treaty of Versailles gave Germany s sphere of influence in China to Japan May 4, National outrage prompted a massive movement called the May Fourth Movementshowed China could have national unity (beginning of Chinese nationalism) The May Fourth Movement (1919)

27 CHANGES IN CHINA: : The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) begins to form under Mao Zedong Meanwhile, Sun Yixian and the Nationalists set up a government in south China Sun Yixian became upset with Western democracies that did not support his government- wanted Chinese unity, allowed the CCP to join forces with the Kuomintang- this earned Russia s support Mao Zedong

28 CHANGES IN CHINA: Sun Yixian died in 1925; Jiang Jieshi (formerly called Chiang Kai-shek) replaced him as leader of Nationalists Jiang Jieshi feared communist takeover First, worked with CCP to fight the warlords, bring unity to China Then, in , Jiang s Nationalists attacked the communists (CCP) : Chinese Civil WarNationalists fought Communists Jiang Jieshi

29 CHINESE CIVIL WAR ( ) Who in China would support each group? Which foreign nations would support each group? Nationalists Communists

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31 CHANGES IN CHINA: Mao recruited peasants, trained them in guerrilla warfare to fight nationalists Nationalists outnumbered communists, drove them out of their base in southern China : The Long Marchcommunists fled north : Nationalists and communists united to fight the Japanese

32 CHANGES IN CHINA: During WWII, China s death toll was estimated between million : Nationalists and Communists resumed civil war Nationalists had more soldiers, foreign aid from the US, but communists had popular support 1949: Communists won the civil war, China became the People s Republic of China (PRC) under Mao Zedong 1949: Nationalists fled to Taiwan (Formosa)established the Republic of China (Taiwan) PEOPLE S REPUBLIC OF CHINA REPUBLIC OF CHINA (TAIWAN)

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36 WHAP HW TONIGHT! Finish reading and taking notes over Ch. 21 by FRIDAY- you have a Harkness discussion on Friday! Also, your Communism/Cold War Timeline is due on MONDAY. Instructions are on the website.

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