The Rise of Totalitarian leaders as a Response to the Great Depression NEW POLITICAL PARTIES IN EUROPE BEFORE WWII!!

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1 The Rise of Totalitarian leaders as a Response to the Great Depression NEW POLITICAL PARTIES IN EUROPE BEFORE WWII!! COMMUNISM AND THE SOVIET UNION The problems that existed in Germany, Italy, Japan and the Soviet Union after WWI led to the rise of totalitarian governments in these countries. The Soviet Union went with Socialism and Communism. The Soviet Union became a communist nation after the Bolshevik Revolution in The focus of Communism was to give the power to the proletariat (working class) and decrease the wealth and power of the industrial capitalists. The government would take control of industry, production and business to eliminate competition between individuals. Wealth would therefore be distributed equally to citizens. Citizens would no longer own their own private property, instead collectivization - owning property as a group occurred. Land was arranged in communes, shared by citizens. Communism also called for social changes such as the end of the need for religion. For these changes to occur, communism calls for the overthrow of democratic and capitalist societies by the working and an equal spread of the wealthy. 1. What four nations gave way to totalitarian governments before WWII? 2. The Soviet Union became a nation after the Bolshevik Revolution. 3. Communism gave the power to the. 4. What is the proletariat? 5. Who would take control of industry, production and business? 6. Citizens would no longer be able to own. 7. Communism meant individuals couldn t own their own property. They had to practice Collectivization. What is Collectivization? 8. Communism also ended the need for. 9. For all of these changes to occur, communism would have to overthrow and societies. Who would lead the Communist Party in the Soviet Union?

2 Joseph Stalin, totalitarian leader, took control of the Soviet Union in Stalin was a firm believer in Communism and government control. After Lenin died in 1922, Stalin would have to win support from other Communist leaders. He also would have to exile his biggest rival, Leon Trotsky. Stalin took complete control of society. Stalin had secret police monitoring everything said and written; censored all printed information and radio announcements. Stalin used propaganda to maintain his power. During this period known as the Great Purge Stalin terrorized other members of the Communist Party. Stalin would not allow religion, he went after the Russian Orthodox Church and has religious leaders killed. Anyone who wanted to practice religion had to do it in secret! 10. Who died prior to Stalin coming into power? 11. What did Stalin do to make sure nothing was done without his permission? 12. What did Stalin do during the time period called the Great Purge? 13. What was Stalin s thoughts on religion? What type of economy did Stalin want? As a totalitarian leader, Hitler implemented a command economy, ordering several 5 year plans. These five year plans focused on industry and Collectivization. Under Collectivization, the government took all farms and combined them into huge government controlled farms to try to increase food production. Agricultural production increased by the late 1930 s but many wealthy peasants who protested collectivization were killed. Stalin, did improve the economy, however he killed many along the way and the people had no political rights. 14. What type of economy did Hitler implement? 15. During Collectivization what did Stalin do with the farms? 16. What happened to the wealthy peasants? 17. Stalin did improve the economy, however he many along the way and the people had no rights. JAPAN ALSO CHOOSES A TOTALITARIAN STYLE!!!

3 When the Great Depression occurred, Japan was a newly industrialized country. When the Western markets (Europe and the US) entered the depression, this affected Japan s business as well. Japan also went through a period of bad harvests in several of its regions. During this hardship, Japan s military took control. Military leaders took control of all main operations of the government, leaving the Emperor as mainly just a figurehead. The military basically controlled the government. The rise of a totalitarian state in Japan therefore took the form of military control. Under this military leadership, The Japanese decided they wanted to invade and take control over nations surrounding Japan. Japan first invaded Manchuria. The League of Nations said this was HORRIBLE and did not believe Japan should be invading other countries. Japan responded by withdrawing from the league! Japan then attacked China in Who took control over all main operations in Japan? 2. The Emperor ultimately became a and was controlled by the military. 3. The rise of the in Japan therefore took the form of military control. 4. Japan first invaded. 5. What did the League of Nations thing about Japan invading Manchuria? 6. Who did Japan invade in 1937?

4 The Rise of Totalitarian leaders as a Response to the Great Depression NEW POLITICAL PARTIES IN EUROPE BEFORE WWII!! Fascism became popular in Italy and Germany because people blamed the democratic governments in the two countries for the problems that existed after World War I and during the Great Depression. Fascism was the political movement that emphasized an extreme form of nationalism and power to the state. Named for a Roman symbol of power, a bundle of rods tied with an axe called a fasces. Fascist governments denied people their individual liberties and were led by authoritarian leaders. The leaders of Fascist governments used various methods to create unity and spirit and consolidate their power. Such methods included special salutes, military steps and emblems; holding rallies and military parades for the public; and instituting elite military groups that utilized absolute power and terror tactics. 1. What political party became popular in Germany and Italy? 2. What was Fascism? 3. What did Fascist governments deny people? 4. What methods did Fascist governments use to create unity and spirit in their countries? steps and emblems, holding and military for the public, and instituting military groups that utilized power and tactics. Italy and the Fascist Party Italy did not like the outcome of World War I in the Treaty of Versailles because the country was not rewarded a large amount of land. Benito Mussolini was able use the political and economic unrest in his country to gain power and founded the Fascist Party in He organized a group of supporters called the Black Shirts, based on the color of their uniforms, who started to attack communists and socialists. Mussolini promised to strengthen the economy and was soon able to gain the support of the middle class and industrialists by ending a general strike that paralyzed the country. 5. Why did Italy did not like the outcome of the Treaty of Versailles? 6. Benito Mussolini used the and unrest in his country to gain power and founded the party in The Fascist Party supported were called Black Shirts. Why were they called Black Shirts?

5 He seized power in 1922 when his fellow Fascists marched to Rome and told King Emmanuel to make Mussolini the leader of the government. Mussolini was given the title of Il Duce, or The Leader. He set up a Fascist dictatorship and used a secret police and censorship to maintain his power. Once his power was established, Mussolini was able to begin increasing the size of the military. In an attempt to display that Italy was becoming an empire and show dissatisfaction with the Treaty of Versailles, Mussolini used his new military to invade Ethiopia in 1935 and again in Why did the Fascists march to Rome? 9. What title was given to Mussolini? 10. Where did Mussolini invade first? Fascism in Germany - Nazi Party Nazism, which was based on Fascism, began in Germany. Germany was devastated by World War I and furious with the Treaty of Versailles. Adolf Hitler helped to found a fascist group called the National Social German Workers or the Nazi Party. Like the Italian Fascists, the Nazis used mass rallies, special salutes, and special troops called the Brown Shirts and used the swastika as its symbol. 1. What is NAZI short for? 2. What did the Nazis use to gain support? Mass, special, and special troops called the shirts and used the as its symbol. Hitler and his group attempted to overthrow the Weimar Republic in 1923, but failed. Hitler was imprisoned, and wrote Mein Kampf, in which he discussed his goals for Germany. He claimed that the Germans, whom he called Aryans were the master race and blamed others for Germany s woes. His book discussed his hatred for the Hebrew people (Jews), and his desires to regain lost German lands and unite all German speaking people. 3. What happened to Hitler when he attempted to overthrow the Weimar Republic? 4. What book did Hitler write while in Jail? 5. Who did Hitler believe were the master race? 6. Who did Hitler hate?

6 The deepening of the Great Depression strengthened support for Hitler and the Nazi Party, which became the largest political party in Consequently, President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Hitler chancellor. Hitler then gained control of the new government and created a totalitarian state by establishing a secret police called the gestapo, outlawing all other political parties, imprisoning political opponents utilizing censorship and propaganda, banning unions, and controlling the economy. Known as the Fuhrer, or leader, Hitler and his government focused on building factories and infrastructure and ignored the stipulations of the Treaty of Versailles, by beginning to militarize Germany. With this strengthened military, Hitler continued defying the Treaty of Versailles and began aggressive actions in Europe by moving troops into the Rhineland in 1936, taking over Austria in 1938, taking the Sudetenland in 1938, and finally claiming all of Czechoslovakia in What position was Hitler appointed to? 8. Who were the Gestapo? 9. Hitler outlawed parties, imprisoned opponents, utilized and, banning unions, and controlling the economy. 10. How did Hitler defy the treaty of Versailles? 11. Hitler took over in 1938, took over the in 1938, and finally claimed all of in 1939.

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13 Global History Name WWII: Nazism in Germany 1. What was the official Nazi party name? 6. What were the results of the Putsch? 2. How did it help the movement gain more followers? 7. Once Hitler exited prison, what was his plan? 3. Explain the appeal of Nazism to the Germans. a. 8. How did he intend to do this? b. 9. The rollercoaster of Hitler s emotions: Why was he depressed in 1928? Why did he rejoice in 1929? c.

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