Chapter 14 Revolution and Nationalism. Section 1 Revolutions In Russia

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1 Chapter 14 Revolution and Nationalism Section 1 Revolutions In Russia

2 I. Czars Resist Change A. Czars Continue Autocratic Rule 1. Cruel and oppressive rule for most of the 19 th century caused widespread social unrest for decades 2. Alexander III succeeded his father Alexander II and halted all reforms and like his grandfather Nicholas I, Alex III believed in autocracy, a form of govt. in which he had total power

3 I. Czars Resist Change A. Czars Continue Autocratic Rule 3. He imposed censorship on all written documents, secrete police watched schools and universities, &sent political prisoners to Siberia 4. Made Russian the official language and persecuted the Jews 5. Nicholas II continued his fathers rule of autocracy

4 II. Russia Industrializes A. Industrialization of Russia 1. The number of factories doubled between 1863 to By 1900 Russia was the #4 producer of steel 3. The Trans Siberian Railway connected European Russia with Russian ports in the east Pacific Ocean

5 II. Russia Industrializes B. Revolutionary Movement Grows 1. Just like in Europe workers were forced to live and work under grueling conditions with low pay, outlawed unions, and a low standard of living 2. A revolutionary movement spurned by the beliefs of Karl Marx were established

6 II. Russia Industrializes B. Revolutionary Movement Grows 3. They believed in the idea of the proletariat- the workers would rule the country 4. They broke up into two groups- the moderate Mensheviks and the more radical Bosheviks

7 II. Russia Industrializes B. Revolutionary Movement Grows 5. The leader of the Bosheviks Vladimir ILyich also known as Lenin 6. To avoid arrest he fled Russia but remained in contact until he could safely return

8 III. Crisis at Home and Abroad A. Russo-Japanese War 1. Russia and Japan competed for control of Korea and Manchuria 2. Japan attacked Russia s Port Arthur after the Russians broke their peace agreement; Russia suffered military defeats leading to revolt back home

9 B. Bloody Sunday: The Revolution of January 22, 1905 Nicholas II s Generals fire on protestors wounding a 1000 and killing several hundred 2. This provoked violent protests forcing Nicholas II to promise more freedom by creating the Duma Russia s first parliament-copying Britain s Constitutional monarchy; Nicholas dissolves the Duma 10 weeks later

10 C. World War I: The Final Blow 1. Entering the war was the final factor that would lead to the end of the Czar s rule in Russia 2. Weak generals, poorly equipped soldiers, economic costs and the death of 4 million Russians in the first year lead to the downfall

11 C. World War I: The Final Blow 3. Nicholas II moved to the Eastern front to inspire his troops leaving his wife Czarina Alexandra to rule. 4. She ignored the czar s chief advisors listening only to Rasputin a self described holy man

12 C. World War I: The Final Blow 5. Rasputin was murdered in 1916 because people feared his increasing power in govt. 6. On the war front men mutinied, deserted, or ignored orders while the citizens dealt with inflation, food and fuel supplies dwindling

13 IV. The March Revolution A. The Czar Steps Down 1. Local protests exploded forcing the Czar Nicholas II to abdicate his thrown and a year later Nick and his family were executed 2. The Duma established a provisional government- or temporary govt. headed by Alexander Kerensky and his decision to continue World War I cost him support

14 IV. The March Revolution A. The Czar Steps Down 1. Unhappy citizens formed groups called Soviets which were local councils consisting of workers, peasants, and soldier

15 B. Lenin Returns to Russia 1. The Germans arrange Lenin and his Bolshevik s to return to create unrest and hurt the war effort

16 V. The Bolshevik Revolution A. The Provisional Govt. Topples 1. The Bolshevik Red Guards stormed Winter Palace in Petrograd ending Kerensky and his colleagues of their short rule

17 B. Bolsheviks in Power 1. Lenin orders all farmland be distributed among the peasants, gave control of factories to the workers, and signed a truce, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany ending WWI for Russia 2. The humiliating terms of the treaty angered many Russians who also objected the Bolsheviks policies and to the murder of the royal family

18 C. Civil War Rages in Russia 1. The White Army is created to oppose the Bolsheviks who are called the Red Army led by Leon Trotsky 2. The Red Army defeats the White Army even though they were given support by Western governments like the U.S.

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