Russia in Revolution. Overview. Serfdom in Czarist Russia 6/1/2010. Chapter 28

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1 Russia in Revolution Chapter 28 Overview Russia struggled to reform Moves toward revolution Bolsheviks lead a 2 nd revolution Stalin becomes a dictator Serfdom in Czarist Russia Unfree Persons as a Percentage of the Population of Czarist Russia Census Year Private Serfs/Slaves Government Serfs/Slaves % 31% % 40% % 37% % 35% % 34% % 35% Until the abolition of serfdom in 1861, the Czar owned over one-third of the population Source: James Mavor, An Economic History of Russia, p.418. Note that in Mavor's tables, the number of bondsmen excludes women, while the total population counts both sexes. 1

2 Roots of the Revolution Czar Alexander I dies in 1825, leaves Russia in turmoil 80% of the population are serfs 90% of the population depends on agriculture Thoughts of ending serfdom die with Alexander December Revolution Revolt of the army officers following Alexander s death European ideas (and Russian idealism) inspired a movement toward a constitution Revolution was crushed by Nicholas I Nicholas resists Change, Over-extends Russia Disliked serfdom, but needed the landlords support No tolerance for political opposition Foreign policy disaster (Crimean War) exposes Russia s weaknesses 2

3 Alexander II Accepts need for reform Abolishes serfdom in 1861 Landowners compensated for their losses Communal peasant property ties peasants to their land Other reforms include public trials & legal support (lawyers), local councils to administer roads and education, expansion of education opportunities Reforms lead to unrest Despite reforms, Russians are still oppressed Peasant poll taxes & limited access to land lead to peasant riots Censorship limits discussion/debate Nihilism advocates destruction of everything Narodniki spread the idea of revolution, radicalize Assassination! 3

4 Believes in the autocracy, rejects reform Oppression of all opposed to the czar Pogroms terrorize and isolate the Jews Alexander III Nicholas II, last of the Romanovs Inspires hopes of reform, but supports autocracy New, and controversial ideas filter into Russia via universities Economic growth accelerates as cities grow Government invests national funds in local businesses Czar encourages foreign investments Trans-Siberian railroad Growing economic gaps stress society Movement to Revolution Social Revolutionaries Force to overthrow Czar will come from peasants Rural socialism under which government distributes land to peasants Replace Czar with elected government Social Democrats Marxists who believed workers would overthrow the ruling classes, share in society s wealth Lenin works tirelessly for revolution 4

5 Movement to Revolution Bolsheviks majority Lenin s policies approved by a single vote Advocates for radical change under dictatorship of the proletariat Mensheviks minority Defeated by one vote, this group desires more gradual change Czar s Mistakes contribute to Unrest Russo-Japanese War Imperialist conflict over Korea & Manchuria Russian defeat leads to 1905 revolution March on the winter palace is massacred on Bloody Sunday, triggering g country-wide strikes Nicholas reluctantly appoints a Duma Russian Parliament Moderates dominate the Duma, but Czar does not cooperate, and eventually dissolves the body Alexandra tries to preserve the Romanov s power Nicholas goes to war with Germany Early defeats and millions of deaths demoralize Russia Rasputin influences Alexandra Complaints rise about Alexandra after Rasputin s death World War I 5

6 Provisional Government in 1917 Bread riots and strikes force Nicholas from his throne Duma selects provisional government, but it is ignored by radicals Soviets (councils) organized by workers and soldiers to organize & plan demonstrations Kerensky and the provisional government continued the war against Germany Germany helps Lenin Return After 17 years in exile, Germany helps Lenin return home Bolsheviks oppose the war Lenin s return increases Russian unrest Kornilov opposes the Bolsheviks, but is stopped by a worker rebellion Public opinion swayed by Lenin s Peace, Land, Bread pledge Bolsheviks take control of the cities Lenin s Dictatorship of the Proletariat Bolsheviks take control of the government, order the arrest of its leaders Farmland divided among peasants Truce with Germany Workers councils run factories Elections nullified when Bolsheviks close Russia s National Assembly 6

7 Treaty of Bret Litvosk Bolshevik treaty with Germany surrenders ¼ of Russia s European territory, losing many mines and factories While many patriotic Russians expressed their outrage, Lenin wasn t worried he expected Russia s revolution to spread Bolshevik Red forces fight against White opponents, leading to civil war lasting from , and costing some 15 million lives. Casualties include the Romanovs, ending the line Victory s price in the civil war was a ruined economy, little or no foreign trade, and destroyed factories with no one to operate them Reds vs Whites Lenin Restores Order Internal conflict turns ugly Lenin and the Bolsheviks crush Kronstadt rebellion New Economic Policy calls for a compromise with capitalism Bolsheviks rename Russia as USSR, rename themselves as the Communist Party Economic recovery 7

8 Trotsky vs Stalin Stalin becomes a dictator Blends Marxism with nationalism Kicks off an industrial revolution two 5 year Plans under a command economy Agricultural l revolution collectivizes i farms Millions of peasants killed, died during famines, or exiled to Siberia Totalitarian State Dictator (or a small group) takes control of everything Stalin bans religion A t ithi th P t Arrests within the Party Less freedom for the Russian people than in the Czarist era 8

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