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1 Standards and

2 The Russian Revolution took place in November 1917 (October 1917 on the Russian calendar). This marks the date when Bolshevik Party forces took over the government offices in Petrograd. However, the problems that led toward revolution had been developing for generations

3 Russian Revolution - Part 1

4 Widespread suffering under autocracy a form of government in which one person (czar) has absolute power. Weak leadership of Czar Nicholas II who clung to autocracy despite changing times.

5 Poor working conditions, low wages, and the hazards of industrialization. New revolutionary movements that believed a worker-run government should replace czarist rule.

6 Russia was defeated in the Russo-Japanese War (1905) which led to rising unrest. Bloody Sunday (1905) resulted in the massacre of unarmed protestors outside the palace.

7 Devastation of World War I High casualties (2 million in 1915) Economic ruin Widespread hunger

8 March Revolution (1917) Soldiers who were brought in for crowd control ultimately joined labor activists in calling Down with the autocracy!

9 Russian Revolution - Part 2

10 No warm-up today due to the short class periods. All make-up warm-ups should be turned in to the basket on my desk. Today is the last day to earn points from the first two weeks. We will continue with our notes on page 31 as soon as the bell rings.

11 Six for the semester Lose one for every 3 tardies If you are tardy, you may NOT use a bathroom pass. Turn in on the day of the final for extra credit (no more than 2% of your overall grade) No using the bathroom the first or last ten minutes of class!

12 The government is taken over by the Bolshevik Party, led by V.I. Lenin. Later it will be known as the Communist Party

13 Farmland is distributed among farmers, and factories are given to workers. Banks are nationalized and a national council is assembled to run the economy.

14 Russia pulls out of World War I Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Gave up much land to Germany Allows Germany to fight the war on only one front

15 Czarist rule ends. Nichols II, his wife, and five children are executed.

16 In the night of July 16-17, 1918, a squad of Bolshevik secret police murdered Russia's last emperor, Tsar Nicholas II, along with his wife, Tsaritsa Alexandra, their 14-yearold son, Tsarevich Alexis, and their four daughters. They were cut down in a hail of gunfire in a half-cellar room of the Ipatiev house in Ekaterinburg, a city in the Ural mountain region, where they were being held prisoner. The daughters were finished off with bayonets. To prevent a cult for the dead Tsar, the bodies were carted away to the countryside and hastily buried in a secret grave.

17 Civil War, between Bolshevik ( red ) and anti- Bolshevik ( white ) forces, sweeps Russia from 1918 to Around 15 million die in conflict and the famine

18 The Russian economy is in shambles. Industrial production drops. Trade all but ceases. Skilled workers flee the country.

19 Lenin asserts his control by cruel methods. Gulag (mostly under Stalin): a vast and brutal network of prison camps for both criminals and political prisoners.

20 Any problems were dealt with by the Cheka - the feared communist secret police. They had used what was known as the Red Terror during the civil war to keep people in order. To survive during the civil war, Lenin introduced War Communism. What was this?

21 In the factories, the government took complete control. The workers who had been given the right to run factories, had that right taken away. Managers ran them and discipline was strict. Food was rationed. Workers and soldiers received the most while civil servants received little. The workers had to do what the government said they had to - just as in the days of the tsar!

22 In the factories, the government took complete control. The workers who had been given the right to run factories, had that right taken away. Managers ran them and discipline was strict. Food was rationed. Workers and soldiers received the most while civil servants received little. The workers had to do what the government said they had to - just as in the days of the tsar!

23 In the countryside, the Cheka was sent out to take food from the peasant farmers. Anybody found keeping food from others was shot. The peasants responded by producing food only for themselves and so the cities were more short of food than before. Life under Lenin appeared to be worse than under Nicholas II!

24 The civil war had devastated Russia s economy. People survived by doing whatever they could - there was a great increase in robberies and law and order was on the verge of breaking down. Agriculture had been ruined by the war and in 1921, after a drought, there was a terrible famine. Five million people died as a result of this. Cannibalism was common amongst those who survived. Every part of industry was at a worse level than it had been in 1913.

25 By 1921, opposition to Lenin had grown. The country was in a disastrous stare when compared to the state it had been in under the tsar. Workers formed themselves into Workers Opposition demanding a) higher wages b) more food and c) the return of workers control of industry. These were the same workers who had supported Lenin in 1917!!

26 Use your textbook to complete the last set of notes and learn how Lenin changed his policies to deal with the economic collapse. At the end of the period, place your notebook on the floor under the screen so it can be graded. Any notebooks not turned in today will lose professionalism points! Monday = Postwar Disillusionment and Artistic Responses

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