The Other Cold War. The Origins of the Cold War in East Asia

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1 The Other Cold War The Origins of the Cold War in East Asia

2 Themes and Purpose of the Course Cold War as long peace? Cold War and Decolonization

3 John Lewis Gaddis

4 Decolonization

5 Themes and Purpose of the Course Cold War as long peace? Cold War and Decolonization. Superpower rivalry in developing world (perspective of the South ) Ideology, ethnicity, Cold War politics. Civil wars, state against society. Social history of violence. Understand the modern world!

6 Expectations Clarity (content, sound, sight). Don t be afraid to participate or ask questions!!

7 The Chinese Civil War and Revolution

8 Part One: The Rise of Chinese Nationalism Two revolutionary possibilities

9 Things to think about Internal/external dynamics in revolution. Sino-centric analysis. State identity and state building. Culture of the cold war. Shadow cast by China. Regional civil war.

10 Themes China s Century of Humiliation ( ). Shaping society and increased resentment. Qing collapse and creation of modern state. Social revolution. State and society. Peasants.

11 Collapse of the Qing Empire

12 Chinese Revolution ( )

13 Yuan Shikai

14 Sun Yat-sen ( )

15 Yuan s Rule ( ) Attempt to establish new empire. Semi-colonial status with foreign powers. KMT marginalized, while Sun temporarily retires. Failed attempt to subdue southern provinces. Sets stage for the warlord period.

16 Treaty Port System

17 Yuan s Rule ( ) Attempt to establish new empire. KMT marginalized, while Sun temporarily retires. Failed attempt to subdue southern provinces. Sets stage for the warlord period.

18 Warlord Period,( ) Weak central government in Beijing (Beiyang Government). Semi colonial relationship with foreign powers. Provinces dominated by groups of warlords.

19 Structure of Warlord System

20 Social and Political Change in the Warlord Years Rise of mass education. KMT declares independence from Beijing (Canton). Arrival of communism. Growing anti-foreign sentiment and resistence.

21 Rise of the KMT Sun s 1925 death leads to power struggle in which Chiang emerges as victorious.

22 Chiang Kai-shek ( )

23 Rise of the KMT Sun s 1925 death leads to power struggle in which Chiang emerges as victorious , leads Northern Expedition. Purge and white terror against the CCP. 2/3 are wiped out.

24 The Norther Expedition

25 Rise of the KMT Sun s 1925 death leads to power struggle in which Chiang emerges as victorious , leads Northern Expedition. Purge and white terror against the CCP. 2/3 are wiped out.

26 Why do the Communists survive? Japanese aggression. Weakens Nationalists, militarizes government. KMT is ideologically fragmented (conservative, fascist, liberal). Remaining warlords. Communists capitalize on conditions to launch a social revolution.

27 Mao Zedong ( )

28 Mao s Early Thought and Activities Influence of anarchism. Mutual aid for peasants. Active since 1918, gradual reformism until collapse of United Front. Class question must revolve around the peasantry. Party should immerse itself with the peasants and form programs based on needs. Jainxi Soviet ( ). Crushed by encirclement campaign.

29 Jiangxi Soviet

30 The Long March ( )

31 Japanese Aggression and Second United Front 1936, Chiang is kidnapped by Manchurian general and forced to form an alliance with the communists.

32

33 Japanese Aggression and Second United Front 1936, Chiang is kidnapped by Manchurian general and forced to form an alliance with the communists. Story of two failures: Japanese Empire and Nationalists. Nationalists cut off from support base and networks.

34 Japan s conquest of China and the United Front.

35 Japanese Aggression and Second United Front 1936, Chiang is kidnapped by Manchurian general and forced to form an alliance with the communists. Story of two failures: Japanese Empire and Nationalists. Nationalists cut off from support base and networks. Chiang unable to capitalize on Nationalism from masses. Alienates Peasants.

36 Mao s Strategy State building, war strategy, social revolution. Avoid fights that they can t win, few major offensives. Dramatically weakened in Ichigo Offensive.

37 Ichigo Offensive

38 Resumption of Civil War 1944, CCP is preparing for Civil War (who started it?). 1945, US strives to negotiate a power sharing arrangement. Fails. Communists move into Manchuria, nationalists encourage Japanese troops to resist. Nationalists control major capitals, American arms, twice the size of forces.

39 Why do the communists win? Nationalists failures: economic problems, corruption, encourage Japanese troops to fight the communists. Nationalists focus on capture of major cities and railways. Communists rely on guerrilla tactics, force Nationalists to overextend themselves.

40 China 1946

41 Why do the communists win? Nationalists failures: economic problems, corruption, encourage Japanese troops to fight the communists. Nationalists focus on capture of major cities and railways. Communists rely on guerrilla tactics, force Nationalists to overextend. Russian clandestine support of CCP, US support for Nationalists. Implement tactics of peasant mobilization. Oct , PRC declared in Beijing. Dec 1949, Taipei declared Capital of ROC.

42 Part Two: China and the Socialist Challenge ( ) Cold War China

43 Mao as Mass Murderer?

44 Treaty Port System

45 1949 China

46 Land Reform Manchurian model Polarization along class model (five classes) Problem of landlords Theory vs practice Violence (top down and bottom up)

47 1949 China

48 Land Reform Manchurian model Polarization along class model (five classes) Problem of landlords Theory vs practice million killed

49 Maoism State Consolidation and Identity

50 Ideological Characteristics of Maoism Personality Cult. Mass indoctrination. Mass mobilization campaigns. Tensions over bureaucratization/corruption/factionalism. Violence (decentralized/state violence)

51 Personality Cult of Mao

52

53 Internationalism

54 Ideological Characteristics of Maoism Personality Cult. Mass indoctrination. Mass mobilization campaigns. Tensions over Bureaucratization/corruption/factionalism. Violence (decentralized/state violence)

55 State Consolidation and Identity Maoism Resistance? October 1950-Spring 1951 Great terror (anti-rightist campaign). Cadre System and Peasants. Education and the Question of the Intellectuals.

56 Mass Education and Role of Intellectuals Traditional position of the Chinese intellectual Problem of bureaucratization and technocratic elite Problem of class in the education system (cultural capital) Class system becomes part of daily life

57 Hundred Flowers Campaign 1956, Intellectuals encouraged to criticize cadres. 1957, Rectification Campaign. Mao loses face. 1957, Mass purge of intellectuals. Long term consequence: anti-intellectualism becomes part of state ideology.

58 The Great Leap Forward

59 The Great Leap Forward Rapid industrialization for steel production. Sino/Soviet split. Proletarianize the population. Collectivized farms.

60

61 Famine

62 The Great Leap Forward ( ) Rapid industrialization for steel production. Collectivized farms. Violence and Famine: million killed.

63 The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution ( )

64 What was the Cultural Revolution? 10 year power struggle instigated by Mao, then waged by Lin Biao and the gang of four. Bottom up theory which focuses on the Red Guard. Organic revolution then descends into anarchy, violence and terror. Consequence of mass-mobilization campaigns. Eg, hundred flowers campaign, Anti-rightist campaign, Great Leap Forward.

65 Causes of CR Ideology: Banish China of the four olds : Old thoughts, old culture, old customs, old habits. Never explicitly formulized and the nature of the enemy is constantly changing. Political tensions between Mao s faction and CCP bureaucracy. Left and right split. In 1966, Mao sets up Central Cultural Revolution Group. Radical students urged to rise up against rightists at universities.

66 Public Shaming

67 Phases of revolution Mao forms the Red Guards. Learn revolution by making revolution. 1967, Red Guard is urged to smash the bureaucracy. Moves from intellectuals and well off to party elite. Totalitarianism? Red Guards ordered to be disbanded by PLA. Civil war breaks out. Left wing. PLA assumes control. Red Guards sent down to villages as way of purification (12million-120 million) : Power struggle, Mao is ailing, Gang of Four.

68 Legacy of Cultural Revolution Denounced by Deng. Problem of memory persists. Nostalgia. CR and state capitalism?

69 Questions??????

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