A WANING KINGDOM 1/13/2017

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1 A WANING KINGDOM World History 2017 Mr. Giglio Qing Dynasty began to weaken During the 18 th & 19 th centuries. Opium Wars Taiping Rebellion Sino-Japanese War Spheres of Influence Open-Door Policy REFORM EFFORTS FALL SHORT Hundred Days of Reform Guang Xu Move to modernize the nation Fight corruption Modernize army Modernize civil service system Modern schools BOXER REBELLION Increased foreign influenced raised tensions Christian Missionaries Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists Boxers International coalition puts down the rebellion

2 BOXER REBELLION THE AFTERMATH Boxer Protocol Westernization Educate women Science & Math over Confucianism A weakened Qing Dynasty A REPUBLIC IS BORN Nationalism remains 2-year old emperor Sun Yat-sen Three Principles of the People Free China from foreign domination Representative government Economic security for all A REPUBLIC IN TURMOIL Lack of national identity Sun Yat-sen steps down (1912) Yuan Shikai takes power attempted to revive the monarchy & install himself as emperor Chaos upon his death JAPAN POUNCES- TWENTY-ONE DEMANDS sent to the government of the Republic by Japan in 1915 Sought to make China a Japanese protectorate A weak Yuan gave into some of the demands Paris Peace Conference

3 JAPAN POUNCES- TWENTY-ONE DEMANDS MAY FOURTH MOVEMENT Initiated mainly by college students Angry at China s treatment at the hands of West Anti-imperialist Demanded restoration of Chinese independence and sovereignty. Sought a Government based on: Democracy Liberal individualism Science Industry MAY FOURTH MOVEMENT (CONT) Peaked on May 4th 1919 thousands of students rallied in Beijing to protest against China s weak response the Treaty of Versailles. Shandong Problem The event helped radicalized political movements in China and contributed to the rise of groups like the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) COMMUNISM IS BORN Vanguards Guomindang: Chinese nationalist party founded by Sun Yixian Established a government in south China

4 CHIANG KAI-SHEK TAKES CONTROL Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi): took command of the Guomindang after Yixian s death Sought to reunite China Little interest in democracy or communism Authoritarian government Northern Expedition April 12 Incident CHIANG KAI-SHEK TAKES CONTROL Kai-Shek s government sought to build railroads, develop agriculture and industry, and fully modernize China Problems: Corrupt/Disloyal officials Mistreatment of the peasants CIVIL WAR ERUPTS Mao Zedong: Young communist official in the KMT who managed to avoid Kai-Shek s purges following the April 12 Incident. Kai-Shek s government expelled all Communists from the KMT on July 15. Mao helped the CPC found the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army of China, better known as the "Red Army", to battle Chiang

5 RISE OF MAO THE LONG MARCH Mao Zedong: believed the CPC should seek support from the peasants and not the working classes Appointed commander-inchief of the Red Army in 1927 Autumn Harvest Uprising Guerrilla tactics Kai-Shek and the KMT instituted a series of extermination campaigns against the CPC Long March ( ): 6,000 mile retreat by the CPC under constant assault by the KMT Mao s forces used guerilla tactics to resist 20,000 of 100,000 survived Ordered to treat peasants kindly during the march AN IMPERIAL JAPAN & A TENSE PEACE Beginning in the 1930 s, Japan began to rise and sought to expands it s political and economic reach Imperialism Strong and unified Manchurian Incident: Japanese invasion of Manchuria and the establishment of the Japanesedominated state of Manchukuo September 19, 1932

6 SECOND SINO-JAPANESE WAR July 7, September 9, 1945 Nationalist armies attempted to resist but were quickly overcome by the technological supremacy and preparedness of Japan. Japan allied with Nazi German & Italy China s underdeveloped industries were incapable of supplying adequate munitions Chinese military had no tanks and only a few aircraft. Blitzkrieg Resulted in a temporary/uneasy peace between KMT and Communists FALLOUT FROM THE SECOND SINO-JAPANESE WAR Chang Kai-Shek was criticized for his wartime leadership Placed more importance on the struggle against the communists than the Japanese. Corrupt government plagued by economic issues Failed to work effectively with China s foreign allies. The war left the Nationalist government in a vulnerable position, while the CCP managed to consolidate and expand their support. Chinese Civil War Video

7 KEYS TO COMMUNIST VICTORY 1. Mao had won the supports of the peasants Proper treatment and promises of land redistribution 2. Women backed the CPC due to policies that promoted equality 3. Guerilla warfare 4. Nationalists failed to end widespread economic hardship and corruption A PEOPLES REPUBLIC IS BORN 1. Mao had won the supports of the peasants Proper treatment and promises of land redistribution 2. Women backed the CPC due to policies that promoted equality 3. Guerilla warfare 4. Nationalists failed to end widespread economic hardship and corruption A PEOPLE S AGENDA 1. Transform China into a modern nation and society 2. Reshape the economy by nationalizing businesses 3. Boost agriculture Collectivization 4. Increase literacy by simplifying Chinese characters 5. Increase health care CLEANING THE SLATE 1. War on crime and corruption 2. Dismantles the landlord and business classes 3. Elevated the peasantry 4. Totalitarian policies Suppression of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Christianity Mass murder or forced labor of political enemies

8 THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD WHY DID IT FAIL? Why, according to the previous video did the Great Leap Forward fail? The Great Leap Forward CONSEQUENCES OF THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD 1. Led to the greatest destruction of real estate in human history. 2. Many local officials were tried and publicly executed for giving out misinformation. 3. Mao stepped down as State Chairman of the PRC Liu Shaoqi (far left) and Deng Xiaoping (left) 4. Reversal of Mao s extreme policies THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION & MAO S RETURN Timeframe: Goal was to preserve 'true' Communist ideology in the country by eradicating capitalist & traditional elements from society, and to reimpose Maoist thought. Youth involvement and the Red Guard. Little Red Book Swim across the Yangtze Back to the farms Video Link

9 THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION S LASTNG IMPACT Overall terrible consequences for the people of China Dissidents were physically abused and killed (millions of politically motivated murders) Purge of the CPC Use of military to suppress dissent Weakened central government Mao is raised to god-like status Education overhaul and suppression Economic turmoil Countless priceless historical artefacts, monuments & arts were destroyed.

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