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1 World history

2 Factories double from Trans-Siberian Railway finally finished in 1916 More and more people work in factories o Terrible conditions, child labor, very low pay o Unions were illegal no way to fight for better treatment Workers are very unhappy! o Karl MARX S ideas of socialism grow more popular

3 Czar Nicholas II and his Romanov family begin losing favor and power among Russians Mistakes include: o Military kills hundreds during worker protest o Leading Russia s weak military into WWI (and losing) o Refusing to share authority with any sort of elected government

4 1. March Revolution huge worker protests force the Czar to abdicates the throne (steps down) o A very weak provisional (temporary) government is established Keeps Russia in WWI for too long Peasants, workers, soldiers all against them o Communities create socialist soviets (local councils of workers, peasants, soldiers) 2. Bolshevik Revolution-- in November, radical socialists led by Vladimir Lenin storm the palace, arrest the provisional gov t, and take power

5 VERY BLOODY civil war breaks out between the Bolsheviks and their opponents BOLSHEVIK RED ARMY CRUSHES the opposition WHITE ARMY (helped by the Allies). Lenin creates a mild capitalist economy to get Russia back on track some small factories, businesses, and farms can be privately owned Communist Party is officially created and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) is formed o Constitution gives all power to the Communist Party Lenin suffers a stroke in 1922; Joseph Stalin soon takes over

6 Work like a Revolutionist! Keep an exact and honest account of finances, manage efficiently, don't steal, maintain the toughest discipline on your job. "We learn from Lenin."

7

8 See the transformation?

9 Sun Yat-sen starts KUOMINTANG (Nationalist) Party to oppose Qing (Manchu) Dynasty Pushes principles of nationalism, democracy, economic security; this gets them supporters Overthrow Qing (Manchu) Emperor 1911

10 NATIONALIST PARTY IS WEAK o WARLORDS CONTROL MOST OF CHINA o PARTY SEEKS HELP FROM COMMUNIST RUSSIA TO GET CONTROL OF COUNTRY o BY 1928 NATIONALIST PARTY DEFEATS ALMOST ALL WARLORDS AFTER VICTORY, NATIONALIST PARTY FEARS GROWING POWER OF CHINESE COMMUNISTS & FIGHTS THEM IN 10-YEAR CIVIL WAR

11

12 Civil War begins with the famous Long March led by Mao Zedong (Chinese Communist leader) Nationalist army surrounds outnumbered Communists o 6,000-mile journey to safety in north. o 6,000 out of 100,000 survive Seeing chaos in China, Japan launches all-out invasion in Nationalists & Communists forced to join together to fight Japan

13

14 China enters war on side of Allies o hopes to remove foreign spheres of influence from China o China does not contribute much to Allied war effort Civil War (Nat. vs Comm.) resumed after WWII ends o Communists eventually win China becomes 2 nd communist country in world

15 World War I Increases Nationalism British promise steps to self-government in return for war service. After war, no changes; Indians are resentful Amritsar Massacre o in 1919, British pass Rowlatt Acts, which call for jailing of protestors for up to 2 years. o 10,000 Hindus and Muslims protest (many unaware that the British had banned public meetings) at a festival in Punjab. o British troops open fire upon the crowd.

16 Mohandas Gandhi

17 Religious principles guide his activism o Uses ideas from Hindu Jainism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity. Civil Disobedience: deliberate and public refusal to obey a government or its laws. o When British do not punish people in charge of Amritsar Massacre, Gandhi pushes the Indian National Congress to not cooperate with British government. Boycotts of British cloth Gandhi calls on Indians to spin their own cloth Costly to British trade

18

19 Civil disobedience takes an economic toll on the British The Salt March o In 1930, Gandhi protests Salt Acts Salt March 240-mile walk led by Gandhi to collect seawater for salt o British police brutalize protestors; Indians gain worldwide support o Around 60,000 people arrested throughout Salt Act protests

20

21 In 1935, Parliament passes the Government of India Act o gives India local self-government, not total independence Act does nothing to calm rising tension between Muslims and Hindus o this will affect India s push for independence

22

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