Unit 7. Historical Background for Southern and Eastern Asia

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1 Unit 7 Historical Background for Southern and Eastern Asia

2 What You Will Learn Historical events in Southern and Eastern Asia have shaped the governments, nations, economies, and culture through conflict and change. The student will understand how European partitioning and colonialism, nationalist, and independence movements influenced the continent politically and socially. Students will also examine the development of Japan after WWII and the rise and containment of communism in the region.

3 Standards/Elements SS7H3 The student will analyze continuity and change in Southern and Eastern Asia leading to the 21st century. a. Describe how nationalism led to independence in India and Vietnam. b. Describe the impact of Mohandas Gandhi s belief in non-violent protest. c. Explain the role of the United States in the rebuilding of Japan after WWII. d. Describe the impact of communism in China in terms of Mao Zedong, the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution and Tiananmen Square. e. Explain the reasons for foreign involvement in Korea and Vietnam in terms of containment of communism.

4 Unit 7 Things to Know 1. Nationalism 2. Communism 3. Mohandas Gandhi 4. Mao Zedong 5. Great Leap Forward 6. Cultural Revolution (China) 7. Tiananmen Square 8. Partitioning 9. Colonialism 10. Containment of communism

5 I. The isms A. Colonialism: system in which a state claims sovereignty over a territory and people outside its own boundaries, often to facilitate economic domination over their resources, labor, and often markets. B. Nationalism: a devotion to the interests, religion, and culture of one's nation has helped fuel the fire for independence in certain countries. C. Communism: a classless society in which all property is owned by the community as a whole and where all people enjoy equal social and economic status. This concept dominated much of the history of the 20th century.

6 Nationalism IN ACTION India p. 236 Vietnam p. 236 Compare ways they were alike: )) Contrast Differences Colony of Independence leader Independence achieved by Government today SS 7H3a: Describe how nationalism led to independence in India and Vietnam.

7 Nationalism IN ACTION India (p. 236) Vietnam (p. 236) Compare ways they were alike: -Nationalism led to independence -European colonies -Located in Asia -Achieved independence from European countries Contrast Differences United Kingdom Mohandas Gandhi Gandhi persuaded Congress to use nonviolent protest and millions joined in. U.K. granted them independence. Federal republic Colony of Independence leader Independence achieved by Government today France Ho Chi Minh With China s aid, Ho Chi Minh organized a communist nationalist movement to fight a war against the French Communist state SS 7H3a: Describe how nationalism led to independence in India and Vietnam.

8 Mahatma Gandhi is known as the 'Father of India'. He led non-violent protests against the British rulers of India and helped them gain independence.

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10 II. Mohandas Gandhi and India A. Born in 1869 Indian political leader who was determined that all people should be treated equally. B. Hindu but admired many religions C. Felt India s government did not provide justice to its people D. Also known as Mahatma Great Soul E. Strong believer in non-violent protests F. At end of WWII British gave up claims to India

11 World Revolutions Gandhi and India s Independence 1. What was the British East India Trading Company? 2. Why was the Battle of Plassey significant? 3. How did India s status change after the Great Mutiny of 1857? 4. Why were the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League formed? 5. What was Satyagraha? 6. How did the Amritsar Massacre affect India s independence movement? 7. Why did Gandhi choose salt as the subject of a massive protest march? 8. Explain why the events of WWII worked to India s advantage in its struggle for independence from Britain. 9. Who were the first leaders of the new nations of India and Pakistan? 10. What was the Radcliffe Line?

12 Biography of Gandhi Use MS Publisher to make your book (folded greeting card). Put his picture on the front of the book. Under his picture, type his name. Under his name, type the dates that he lived. Then, answer the following questions in sentence form inside the book. DO NOT COPY THE QUESTIONS. Instead, restate the questions in your answer!! 1. Who was Mohandas Gandhi? 2. What religion did Gandhi practice? 3. Paraphrase what Gandhi was protesting. 4. What was unique about Gandhi s method of protest? 5. Explain the result of Gandhi s protest? 6. What American leader adopted Gandhi s method of protest? 7. How could you apply Gandhi s principles in your life? SS7H3b:Describe the impact of Mohandas Gandhi s belief in non-violent protest.

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14 III. Rebuilding of Japan A. After WWII, Japan was a mess B. Industries and farms were destroyed, government in shambles, people demoralized, emperor had been exposed. C. American commander General Douglas MacArthur was given the job of helping Japan back on its feet D. He wanted Japan to become a democracy, but still was willing to include the emperor. E. Wrote the MacArthur Constitution that created a 2 house parliament the Diet. F. Japanese were granted universal suffrage (over 20) and a Bill of Rights with basic freedoms. G. Japan could not declare war and could only fight if they were attacked first. H. American troops remained and Japanese could not rebuild their military in any way.

15 From Dust to Dominance Sequencing Chart for U.S. Involvement in the Rebuilding of Japan Political, economic, and social reforms were introduced, such as a freely elected Japanese Diet (legislature) and universal adult suffrage Japan establishes a constitutional monarchy Take these events and write them in the correct order on your story frame summary After WWII, Japan was placed under international control of the Allies through the Supreme Commander, Gen. Douglas MacArthur (date) U. S. drops atomic bombs on Japan The U. S. occupies Japan until 1952 In 1957, Japan is granted membership into the United Nations U. S. financial support, along with the Japanese values of hard work lead to a period of great economic growth for Japan Today Japan has one of the most powerful industrialized economies in the world. Like the U. S. Japan encourages a market economy which motivates people to develop new ideas and expand businesses (date) Japan declares war on the U. S. by bombing the naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii SS7H3c: Explain the role of the United States in the rebuilding of Japan after WWII.

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17 IV. China and Communism A Qing dynasty was overthrown and new government was called Republic of China. Was not overly successful. B Chinese Communist Party was formed (Mao Zedong) C Nationalist Republic of China was formed Jiang Jieshi formed it. D. Mao Zedong and the communists vs Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists Civil War. (Long March) E. Formed a temporary truce during WWII to keep Japanese out. F. Mao s communists (Red Army) swept the Nationalist government from power in 1949 and created People s Republic of China.

18 G. Mao tried to reorganize China into government owned factories and farms. He eliminated private ownership and set up quotas. Farms were organized into collectives. H. This was called the Great Leap Forward I. He thought tremendous positive changes would follow, but instead crop failures made it worse and plan was abandoned in J. Mao announced the Cultural Revolution in Students were organized into an army called the Red Guard. K. He decided to change China into a nation of equal farmers and workers. L. This did not work out either in 1976 he admitted it, ended the Red Guard, and order returned to China. M Deng Xiaoping became China s new leader. Allowed private ownership of farms and companies. N Tiananmen Square protest against communism and a desire to move towards democracy

19 SS7H3d: Describe the impact of communism in China in terms of Mao Zedong, the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution and Tiananmen Square.

20 Modern History of China Timeline Before Add to this timeline: Chinese Communist Party was formed Great Leap Forward World War I Qing Dynasty ruled China Chinese nationalists overthrew Qing Dynasty Nationalist Republic of China ruled China Mao Zedong died and Red Guard ended Deng Xiaoping died Tiananmen Square Civil War btwn communists and nationalists Cultural Revolution and Red Guard World War II Republic of China was formed People s Republic of China was formed Long March Deng Xiaoping became ruler of China

21 Do you get it? 1. Who led the Chinese communists during most of the 20 th century? 2. When the Nationalist Republic of China was formed in 1929, what happened to Mao s communist supporters? 3. When did Mao and the communists take control of China? 4. Why was the Great Leap forward unsuccessful? 5. What was the period of time called when Mao tried to eliminate anyone that criticized the government? 6. What was the name of the new arms of young people that Mao used to enforce his policies in the 1960 s? 7. Which jobs did Mao think would lead China to become prosperous? 8. After Mao s death in 1976, who became leader of China? 9. What happened to the students in 1989 that protested for greater political freedom in Tiananmen Square in Beijing? 10. The Tiananmen demonstrators had a statue, Goddess of Democracy, that was modeled after which figure?

22 V. Foreign involvement in Korea A. During last months of WWII, the U.S., S.U.. & G.B. drew up an agreement (Yalta Agreement) saying they would work together to restore order to the world. B. But - Soviets did not do what they said - instead tried to spread communism over the world. C. This led to the COLD WAR competition to get as many governments in place as possible. D. Korean Peninsula U.S. controlled southern half (democracy) and Soviets controlled northern half (communism). E. War broke out btwn them in Came to a truce later. N Korea is still communist with heavy industry and well-armed military. They are allied with China. F. S Korea - free elections and democratic constitution more prosperous because they trade and get foreign aid from us and other democracies

23 VI. Foreign involvement in Vietnam A. Nationalist Ho Chi Minh (communist) wanted to reorganize Vietnam into a communist country. The French wanted to regain control, and U.S. supported them. B. But when French gave up, the U.S. stepped in. Country was divided into N and S Vietnam. C. Plan was to let the two sides vote on what kind of government they wanted, and the U.S. spent billions of dollars and sacrificed thousands of lives in Vietnam to prevent them from becoming communist. D. In the end, the country reunited and was declared a communist country.

24 Vietnam War Video Questions 1. About how many Americans died in the Vietnam War? 2. Which battle of the Vietnam War marked the turning point of the war -- the point at which the U.S. began to pull out? 3. Which of President Johnson's advisors at first supported an escalation of the war, but later changed his mind? 4. What did the Tonkin Resolution allow President Johnson to do? 5. How many of the battles in Vietnam did the U.S. Army win? 6. On March 31, 1968, with what news did President Johnson stun the nation?

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26 Containment of Communism Event 1: In 1950, the U.S. sent troops to Korea because because Consequences: Event 2: In 1961, U.S. sent troops to South Vietnam. South Vietnam signed a military and economic aid treaty with the United States. because because Consequences: SS7H3e: Explain the reasons for foreign involvement in Korea and Vietnam in terms of containment of communism.

27 Unit 7 Review Questions 1. How did nationalism lead to independence in India and Vietnam? 2. What was the impact of Mohandas Gandhi s belief in non-violent protest? 3. What was the role of the United States in the rebuilding of Japan after WWII? 4. How did communism influence China in terms of a) Mao Zedong b) The Great Leap Forward c) The Cultural Revolution d) Tiananmen Square 5. What were the reasons for foreign involvement in Korea and Vietnam in terms of containment of communism?

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