Chapter 4: The Fall of Tsarism. Revolution

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1 Chapter 4: The Fall of Tsarism Revolution

2 What is a Revolution? A complete change in the way things are done (Agricultural Revolution, Industrial Revolution, Russian Revolution) Sometimes peaceful Sometimes violent Russian Revolution = the overthrow of the Tsar s s government and the establishment of Communist Rule

3 Events and Personalities Leading up the 1917 Revolution Karl Marx Spontaneous revolution of the working class Let the ruling classes tremble at the prospect of a communist revolution. Proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have the world to win. Proletarians of all lands, unite! Vladimir Lenin Planned revolution by professional revolutionaries Revolution of all oppressed classes of society

4 Tsar Nicholas II Not a strong leader Did not keep promises made to increase personal freedoms (free speech, freedom of religion, freedom of movement, freedom of language) Easily influenced by Rasputin Did not give DUMA (national parliament, much power)

5 Bloody Sunday Unarmed peasants, led by Father Gapon,, marched to Winter Palace singing, God Save the Czar carrying petition requesting shorter work days, minimum wage, calling of a constituent assembly to create a constitution for Russia. Palace Guards fired upon crowd killing hundreds, injuring thousands (without orders) Bond between Czar and his people broken forever

6 World War I Russia unprepared for war Not enough supplies (food, weapons, clothing) Army poorly organized Soldiers didn t t understand why they were fighting Tsar Nicholas II and his ministers provided poor leadership and organization

7 Events of the Revolution February 1917 Spontaneous uprising of peasants Protesting shortage of bread: Industrial strikes Tramcars (city transit) forceably stopped Breaking of shop windows Waving red flags that read, Down with war!

8 Revolutionaries Take Over When revolutionary leaders realized the revolution was actually happening, they tried to organize the events to their benefit. Leaders of Bolsheviks, Mensheviks, and Social Revolutionaries all joined together calling a three-day general strike At least 60,000 soldiers join the revolutionaries These leaders, together with soldiers set up a Soviet (council) Take control of Petrograd (St. Petersburg) Duma disobeys Tsar s s orders to dissolve and form the Provisional Government to run Russia Tsar Nicholas II steps down in favour of his son, Alexis, with Tsar s brother acting as regent Tsar s s brother refuses succession Romanov line to Russian throne ends Romanov family placed under house arrest (confined to palace) Russia now governed by a Provisional Government

9 Provisional Government Declared all Russian citizens equal Freedom of speech, religion, press, and assembly given to all citizens Unions and strikes legal Planned on continuing war Provisional Government made these promises, but asked people to wait People tired of waiting and listened more and more to the revolutionaries

10 Alexander Kerensky Leader of small socialist party became Russia s Prime Minister in July Wanted to establish Parliamentary Democracy Well educated and an excellent speaker, he lacked strong leadership abilities

11 Kornilov Affair General Kornilov attempted to overthrow Provisional Government with military takeover To prevent this takeover, Kerensky freed many Bolshevik leaders from prison and supplied arms to many revolutionaries

12 Bolsheviks Believed that a small group of trained revolutionaries could lead the workers to overthrow the tsar and establish socialism in Russia Led by Lenin Tried to attract the people with slogans like, All Power to the Soviets and Bread, Peace, and Freedom

13 Bolshevik Revolution By end of September, there was widespread peasant rebellion in Russia Lenin left Finland in disguise and attended a secret Bolshevik meeting in Petrograd Bolsheviks held mass meetings with thousands in attendance Kerensky declares Russia to be in a state of emergency and orders arrest of Trotsky and other Bolshevik leaders

14 Events of Bolshevik Revolution 1. Cruiser Aurora listens to Trotskey and disobeys Governments order to go out to sea 2. Trotsky orders the removal of thousands of guns from the Fortress of Peter and Paul to arm the Red Guards (Bolshevik troops) 3. Small bands of armed Bolsheviks seize important buildings (rail stations, telegraph exchanges, banks, printing plants, and powerhouses). Most regiments in Petrograd did not get involved. 4. Trotsky declares Provisional Government overthrown, power now in hands of Soviets 5. Kerensky escapes in American Embassy car 6. Bolshevik troops surround Winter Palace and give ultimatum to surrender or be shelled; ministers would not surrender 7. Cruiser Aurora fires blank shells at Winter Palace to signal beginning of attack 8. Bolsheviks (composed of soldiers, sailors, and workers) storm Winter Palace 9. Bolsheviks encounter little resistance, mass confusion but few injuries 10. Bolsheviks control Government, Lenin was new leader 10.

15 How Did Bolsheviks Win? Kerensky not a strong leader Provisional Government disorganized Other parties not as organized as Bolsheviks Bolsheviks composed of professional revolutionaries dedicated to their goals and capable of carrying them out

16 What Did Lenin Do Upon Coming Immediately proposed an end to War (WWI) (what peasants wanted most was peace) Proposed the distribution of all land to peasants, landowners would not be paid for land taken from them Lenin s s proposals adopted to Power?

17 After the Revolution Bolsheviks encountered stiff resistance in some cities Bolsheviks defeated in Kiev (Ukraine) Bolshevik power weak in Siberia, Georgia, Armenia, and Central Asia Strongest in Central Russia and in large cities where many workers lived

18 Democracy? November 25 elections held to form Constituent Assembly in Russia Socialist Revolutionary Party got more than twice the votes of the Bolshevik Party (peasants liked SRP s idea of peasant ownership of land) When Constituent Assembly met on January 18, 1918, Bolsheviks posted their soldiers at the entrances preventing many Socialist Revolutionaries from entering During meeting, Bolsheviks were disorderly and succeeded in closing down the assembly Russia s s first chance at democracy short lived

19 Ending WWI Bolsheviks needed peasant support to stay in power Lenin decided to get Russia out of WWI and send peasant soldiers home In March of 1918, Lenin signed treaty with Germany accepting German occupation of Ukraine, Belorussia,, the Baltics,, and Finland Russia lost over one quarter of its farmland and one third of its population, almost all its coal mines, and more than half its industries Huge loss to Russia s s economy

20 Civil War After signing peace treaty, Bolsheviks faced armed resistance to their rule Civil war lasted from 1918 to 1921 Some non-russian nationalities took up arms to win independence from Russia Great Britain, France, and the USA sent troops to Russia to defeat Bolsheviks because they did not want these ideas of revolution spread around the world Fight by Bolsheviks to establish communism in Russia, which was renamed the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (USSR) in 1918 Bolsheviks changed their name to the Communist Part Bolsheviks defeated their enemy s s in 1921

21 Bolshevik Success Their enemy was not united Trotsky created a well-organized and disciplined army increasing the size of the Red Army by conscripting thousands of workers and peasants as well as former Tsarist soldiers Bolsheviks increased their support among workers and peasants by promising land and a brighter future Used terror against opponents In newly conquered areas, Bolsheviks used secret police to destroy all opposition, arresting and executing people on the spot

22 Results of Civil War Much of Russia in ruins Cities, land, factories destroyed after almost eight years of fighting Millions died or fled country Bolsheviks had mammoth task of rebuilding country

23 End of Romanovs Taken to Western Siberia After Bolsheviks took power taken to Ekaterinburg (in Ural Mountains) Lenin sent telegram authorizing their execution Taken to cellar at 1:30 a.m. with family doctor and servants Nicholas and Alexandra fell first under the hail of bullets Bullets bounced off the daughters, diamonds found in their corsets Those who survived the bullets were killed by bayonets Bodies loaded onto truck, stripped of jewels, thrown into a mine Mine not deep enough to hide them, bodies dumped into a pit in a marshy area Even the family dog was killed

24 Chapter Project 1. Write a biography on either Leon Trotsky or Vladimir Lenin 2. Write a story from the perspective of Lenin, a member of the royal family, a revolutionary, Kerensky,, a peasant conscripted to fight for the Red Army detailing the events of the fall of Tsarism 3. Create a picture book (that also has some writing/captions) which sequences the significant events of the fall of Tsarism 4. Create a series of newspaper front pages following the significant events of the fall of Tsarism 5. Project Due Date: Wednesday, February 4,

25 Possible References: 1. This PowerPoint 2. Your textbook 3. The following websites: wikipedia.org/.org/wiki/russian_revolution northpark.edu/history/ /history/webchron/easteurope/octrev.html marxists.org/archive/.org/archive/lenin/ %20%20Vladimir%20Ilyich spartacus.schoolnet.co..co.uk/ruslenin.htm en2.wikipedia.org/wiki/vladimir_lenin thehistorychannel.co..co.uk/classroom/alevel/revol.htm

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