Russia. Revolutionary Russia

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1 Russia Revolutionary Russia

2 Nicholas II & Alexandra Russia under Nicholas II Urbanized (13%) Educated (17,000 students) Populated (128 Million) Industrialized (#1 oil producer) Antiquated Social System Colonial Expansion Balkan Penninsula Korea

3 The Fall of the Romanovs Totalitarian Rule Mirs disolved Kulaks given private ownership Black Hundreds Peasants punished Semitic Pogroms World War I Rasputin

4

5 The Fall of the Romanovs March Revolution (1917) Bread Riots break out in St. Petersburg (March 8) Guards join the rioters instead of stopping them (March 12) Nicholas II abdicates (March 15) Brother Michael becomes Czar Michael abdicates (March 17) Provisional Government established

6 Provisional Government Duma recalled to create a temporary government George Lvov = Prime Minister

7 Provisional Government Duma recalled to create a temporary government George Lvov = Prime Minister Mensheviks seize control of government Alexander Kerensky = Prime minister

8 Provisional Government Duma recalled to create a temporary government George Lvov = Prime Minister Mensheviks seize control of government Alexander Kerensky = Prime minister Provisional Policies: Government is caretaking body Constituent Assembly will be elected in general election (Nov.) Continuation of War Effort Socialist reforms AFTER election

9 Provisional Government Challenges to Provisional Authority Army Kornilov Coup (August 1917) Kornilov s army stopped by railway workers and political agitators (Bolsheviks) Bolsheviks Seize control of Petrograd Soviet of Workers & Soldier s Deputies (Sept. 1917) Largest Soviet in Russia Begin Peace, Land, Bread campaign Provisional government viewed as weak, unresponsive & ineffective

10 October Revolution Anti-government demonstrations (July 1917) Lenin & Trotsky forced into hiding Bolshevik Coup d etat (October 1917) Bolsheviks gain control of major soviets All-Soviet congress convened Bolsheviks seize Winter Palace Provisional Government ministers resign All-Soviet Congress votes to accept Bolshevik leadership of Russia November Elections Mensheviks win by a large majority Bolsheviks dismiss assembly Civil War ( ) Red Army led by Trotsky

11 Communist Russia Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( ) Exiled to Siberia after anti-czar activities Escaped to Switzerland Conducted Revolutionary activities Returned to Russia in April 1917 Aided by Germany Immediately spoke against Provisional Government Organized July Coup and October Revolution with Trotsky

12 Lenin s Government Immediate Socialist Reforms Passed ( ) Immediate end to WWI Nationalization of land and redistribution to peasants Control of factories given to Soviets Nationalization of banks Seizure of Church property Diplomatic documents published Creation & Participation in Comintern Permanent Revolution = Russia would inspire International Communism Dictatorship of the Proletariat

13 Lenin s Government War Communism ( ) Calendar Westernized January 31 to February 14 Red Army organized under Trotsky Civil War against White Army Mensheviks, Democrats & Aristocrats

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16 Lenin s Government War Communism ( ) Calendar Westernized January 31 to February 14 Red Army organized under Trotsky Civil War against White Army Mensheviks, Democrats & Aristocrats War with Poland

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19 Lenin s Government War Communism ( ) Calendar Westernized January 31 to February 14 Red Army organized under Trotsky Civil War against White Army Mensheviks, Democrats & Aristocrats War with Poland Checka Organized (Secret Police force) Red Terror Followed attempted assassination of Lenin Counterrevolutionaries executed Nicholas II & Family killed at Yetaerinburg (July 16-17) Opposition within party banned (1921)

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Cruel, oppressive rule of the Czars for almost 100 years Social unrest for decades Ruthless treatment of peasants Small revolts amongst students and

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