AMERICA AND THE WORLD. Chapter 13 Section 1 US History

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1 AMERICA AND THE WORLD Chapter 13 Section 1 US History

2 AMERICA AND THE WORLD THE RISE OF DICTATORS MAIN IDEA Dictators took control of the governments of Italy, the Soviet Union, Germany, and Japan

3 End of World War I and economic depression contributed to antidemocratic governments Mussolini and Fascism in Italy First dictatorship in Italy 1919 Benito Mussolini founded Fascist Party Fascisim = aggressive nationalistic movement that believed nation was more important than individual Believed order would only come with strong dictator and nation needed to be an empire to be strong

4 Fascism was strongly anticommunist, due to fear and Mussolini exploited fears Said Fascism was protection against communism, protect property and middle class Promised working class full employment and social security Bring back Italy to power like in Roman Empire Mussolini backed by Fascist militia (aka Blackshirts) King was forced to appoint Mussolini to premier in 1922

5 Once appointed worked to set up dictatorship Italians supported Mussolini Had support of industries, landowners AND Roman Catholic Church Mussolini s title Il Duce (The Leader)

6 Stalin takes over Russia After Russian Revolution Vladimir Lenin established Communist governments throughout Russian Empire 1922 renamed to Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) One party rule, suppressed individual liberties and punished opponents Lenin died 1924 and created a power struggle between Leon Trotsky and Jospeh Stalin Born Joseph Dzuhgashvili, changed to Stalin (meaning steel) been imprisoned or exiled 7 times (escaped)

7 1926 Stalin new Soviet dictator, began to industrialize county using Five-Year Plans From steel production increased from 4 million to 18 million tons Industrial wages decreased 43% from Family farms combined and turned into collectives Gov t owned farms Resisted by killing livestock or hoard crops and were put on trial and/or starved to death 10 million died

8 Stalin did not tolerate opposition Targeted political enemies and others (artists, intellectuals) 1930s USSR nation of internal terrorism New constitution 1936 promised many freedoms but was never enforced Used concentration camps million in camps 8-10 million died under Stalin

9 Hitler and Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler anticommunist and admired Mussolini Native of Austria and fought for Germany in World War I Germany s defeat and Treaty of Versailles (blamed Germany) made him hate Allies and German gov t who accepted treaty After war, Germany had many new political parties including the National Socialist German Workers Party AKA Nazi Party

10 Nazi party was nationalistic and anticommunist Wanted Germany to expand territory Wanted to not abide by Treaty of Versailles Nazi Party was also anti-semitic Hoped to attract un-happy workers, Adolf Hitler was one of them Nov. 1923, Nazis tried to take power by marching on City hall in Munich Hitler planned to take power locally before going to Berlin for national power Plan failed, Nazi party banned and Hitler was put in Jail

11 In prison Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) Called for unification of all Germans (blonde/blue eyed) Argued German s needed more space so needed to expand to Poland and Russia Slavic people inferior (should be enslaved) Also racists against Jews Blamed Jews for Worlds problems and German s defeat in World War I

12 After release from Prison, Hitler changed tactics Not try to seize power violently, focused on getting Nazis elected to Reichstag (German parliament) In Great Depression, Germans began to vote radicals into gov t 1932 Nazis largest party in Reichstag, 1933 German president appointed Hitler Chancellor Hitler called for new elections, Nazi police began intimidating voters and suppressing Communist party Reichstag full of Nazis who then voted to make Hitler dictator, 1934 became president giving him control of the Army Gave title of Der Fuher (the Leader)

13 Militarists Control Japan Japan needed to import all resources they needed to produce goods 1920s didn t earn enough from exports to pay for imports limited economic growth Depression with raised tariffs made worse situation Japan s military blamed problems on corrupt politicians Believed Japan should dominate East Asia and saw democracy as un-japanese Argued Japan needed to seize territory to get resources it needed

14 September 1931 Japan invaded Manchuria (northern China with resources) Japanese prime minister tried to stop by negotiating with China military officers assassinated him and from then on military controlled country Civilian gov t supported expanding empire and appointed Military as prime minister

15 AMERICA AND THE WORLD AMERICAN NEUTRALITY MAIN IDEA Most Americans did not want to get involved in another European war, despite Franklin Roosevelt s emphasis on internationalism

16 AMERICAN NEUTRALITY Rise of dictators discouraged Americans Felt World War I sacrifices for nothing Began supporting isolationism and avoid international conflicts The Nye Committee Isolation ideas stronger 1930s for 2 reasons Depression made hard for European to pay back $ owed from World War I Articles came out saying arms manufactures tricked US into entering World War I

17 AMERICAN NEUTRALITY 1934 Senator Gerald P. Nye (North Dakota) held hearings to investigate Nye Committee documented huge profits arms factories made during war Created impression business influenced entrance to war This and failure to repay led to feelings of isolationism

18 AMERICAN NEUTRALITY Legislating Neutrality Italian and German aggression increased, worried lead to war Congress passed Neutrality Act of 1935 Illegal for American s to sell arms to any country at war Came from results of Nye Committee 1936 Spanish Rebellion (led by General Francisco Franco Fascist) Revolt became civil war Congress passed second Neutrality Act banning arms sales to either side of civil war

19 AMERICAN NEUTRALITY After Spanish Civil War, Hitler and Mussolini pledged to cooperate on international issues Mussolini termed it Rome-Berlin Axis Japan aligned itself with German and Italy when signed Anti-Comintern Pact Exchange information on communist groups Became known as Axis Powers Not formal allies until 1940

20 AMERICAN NEUTRALITY Tensions in Europe worse, Congress passed Neutrality Act of 1937 Continued ban on arms sales Required nations to buy all nonmilitary supplies from US on cash-and-carry basis. Had to send own ships to US to pick up goods and had to pay in cash (NO LOANS) Reminded of attacks on Ships in World War I (brought into war) and did not want a repeat

21 AMERICAN NEUTRALITY Roosevelt s Internationalism Not an isolationist (Depression was just first priority) Supported internationalism Trade between nations creates prosperity and helps prevent war US should try to preserve peace in world Warned Neutrality Acts might drag us into war instead of keeping us out July 1937 Japanese in Manchuria launched attack on Chinese, President Roosevelt helped (since not officially declared war so Neutrality Act didn t apply) Tried to get American to see that looking the other way wasn t the answer but was unsuccessful

22 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. How did post World War I conditions contribute to the rise of dictators in Europe? 2. Why did many American s support isolationism? 3. Who was Benito Mussolini? 4. What were provisions under the Neutrality Act of 1935? 5. Who was Joseph Stalin? 6. What are collectives? 7. What were the ideas of those who supported internationalism? 8. Which nations did dictators govern after World War I?

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