Begins to believe isolationism will not work for the U.S. FDR wanted to : 1) fix the depression at home 2) recognize the USSR (1933), trade

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3 Begins to believe isolationism will not work for the U.S. FDR wanted to : 1) fix the depression at home 2) recognize the USSR (1933), trade possibilities and counter-weight to Germany in Europe and Japan in Asia. 3) abandon interventionist policy toward Latin America and be Good Neighbors 4) independence to the Philippines. 3

4 Treaty of Versailles causes anger, resentment in Europe Germany resents blame for war, loss of colonies, border territories Russia resents loss of lands used to create other nations New democracies flounder under social, economic problems Dictators rise; driven by nationalism, desire for more territory 4

5 Unemployment and inflation lead to bitter strikes, some communist-led Middle and upper classes want stronger leaders Fascism stresses nationalism, needs of state above individual Benito Mussolini plays on fears of economic collapse and communism Supported by government officials, police, and army 1922 appointed head of government, establishes totalitarian state 5

6 Adolf Hitler was leader of National Socialist German Workers Party Mein Kampf basic beliefs of Nazism, based on extreme nationalism Hitler wanted to unite German-speaking people, enforce racial purification By 1932, 6 million unemployed; many men join Hitler s private army Nazis become strongest political party; Hitler named chancellor He dismantled democratic Weimar Republic and established the Third Reich

7 Joseph Stalin transforms the Soviet Union 1922 V. I. Lenin establishes Soviet Union after civil war 1924 Joseph Stalin takes over: replaces private farms with collectives creates second largest industrial power; famines kill millions purges anyone who threatens his power; 8 13 million killed Totalitarian government exerts almost complete control over people 7

8 8

9 1931, Nationalist military leaders seize Manchuria League of Nations condemns action; Japan quits League Militarists take control of Japanese government 9

10 Aggression in Europe and Africa 1933, Hitler quits League; 1935, begins military buildup Sends troops into Rhineland, League does nothing to stop him 1935, League fails to stop Mussolini s invasion of Ethiopia 10

11 1936, General Francisco Franco rebels against Spanish republic Spanish Civil War begins Hitler and Mussolini back Franco; Stalin aids opposition Western democracies remain neutral War leads to Rome-Berlin Axis alliance between Italy and Germany 1939, Franco wins war and becomes fascist dictator 11

12 Americans Cling to Isolationism Public is outraged at profits of banks, arms dealers during WW I Americans become isolationists; FDR backs away from foreign policy 1935 Neutrality Acts try to keep U.S. out of future wars Outlaws arms sales, loans to nations at war Neutrality Breaks Down 1937 Japan launches new attack on China; FDR sends aid to China FDR wants to isolate aggressor nations to stop war 12

13 1938, German troops take Austria unopposed; then target a region of Czechoslovakia, Sudetenland Munich Conference (Sept., 1938) : Britain and France consented to the NAZI taking of the Sudetenland. Peace in our time! Neville Chamberlain declared Hitler promised no more territorial claims Winston Churchill condemns appeasement policy Appeasement giving up principles to pacify an aggressor Less than 6 months, Hitler grabbed Czechoslovakia and the democratic world was stunned! (Really!?) 13

14 Appendix B: Analyze the political cartoon. 14

15 Britain and France hoped to negotiate with Moscow in an effort to stop Hitler. But August 1939, Germany and the USSR signed the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact agreeing not to fight and to secretly divide Poland. Now Germany could make war on Poland and the western democracies without fear of the Communists attacking First casualty of the Pact was Poland on Sept. 1, 1939, beginning WWII. From Sept., 1939 through June, 1940, Hitler conquered Norway, Netherlands, and France. (Blitzkrieg or lighting war worked!) 15

16 Summer 1940, Germany prepares fleet to invade Britain Battle of Britain German planes bomb British targets Britain uses radar to track, shoot down German planes Hitler calls off invasion of Britain Germans and British continue to bomb each other s cities 16

17 Jews Targeted Europe has long history of anti-semitism Jews are blamed for problems Nazis take away citizenship, jobs, property; require Star of David Kristallnacht or Night of Broken Glass Nazis attack Jewish homes, businesses, synagogues About 100 Jews killed, hundreds injured, 30,000 arrested 17

18 By 1938, Nazis try to speed up Jewish emigration Many countries limit numbers they accept U.S. takes 100,000, many persons of exceptional merit Americans fear strain on economy, enemy agents; much anti-semitism The Plight of the St. Louis Coast Guard prevents passengers on St. Louis from disembarking Ship forced to return to Europe; most passengers killed in Holocaust Voyage of the St. Louis 18

19 Genocide deliberate, systematic killing of an entire population Target Jews, gypsies, freemasons, Jehovah s Witnesses, unfit Germans Nazi death squads round up Jews, shoot them Jews initially forced into ghettos or segregated areas Many Jews taken to concentration camps, or labor camps; families often separated Ultimately 6 million Jews are exterminated in death camps in the Holocaust 19

20 By 1939, U.S. moved to cash and carry basis to help France and Britain defend against the dictators. Allies pay cash and have to transport the goods. By 1940, Germany, Japan, Italy sign Tripartite Pact, mutual defense treaty become known as Axis Powers to keep U.S. out of fight. America s neutrality effectively ended when France fell to Germany in June, 1940 and Congress first response was to pass a conscription law (a draft). Also, to help Britain we offer ships for bases. Public opinion now wanted to help short of war. 20

21 FDR breaks two-term tradition, runs for reelection Republican Wendell Willkie has similar views on war FDR reelected with 55% of votes 21

22 By 1941, Britain needs help. FDR tells nation if Britain falls, Axis powers free to conquer world; U.S. must become arsenal of democracy U.S. to lend or lease defense supplies One bonus was that our factories began gearing for an all-out war effort. 22

23 The passage of the Lend-Lease led to the decision to provide convoys to protect American ships carrying war goods. However, this put Americans at risk. In October 1941, over a hundred sailors were lost when two American destroyers, the Kearney and the Reuben James were sunk. FDR orders navy to shoot German U-boats on sight U-boat attacks lead Senate to repeal ban on arming merchant ships 23

24 1. In the 1930 s, the United States attempted to avoid a repetition of the events leading up to United States involvement in World War I by A. establishing the Good Neighbor policy with Latin American nations B. forgiving the foreign debts incurred during World War I C. officially recognizing the existence of the Soviet Union D. passing a series of neutrality laws 2. In the early 1940 s, the "destroyers-for-military-bases deal" with Great Britain and the Lend-Lease Act were evidence that the United States F. recognized that its policy of neutrality conflicted with its self-interest G. followed its policy of neutrality more strictly as World War II progressed in Europe H. believed that the Allied policy of appeasement would succeed J. wanted to honor the military commitments it had made just after World War I 3. An immediate effect of the Lend-Lease program was that A. Western Europe recovered from the damage caused by World War I B. the Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact C. Japan declared war against the United States D. the United States provided critical aid to Great Britain and the Soviet Union 24

25 25

26 1941, Hitler breaks pact with Stalin and invades Soviet Union Roosevelt sends lend-lease supplies to Soviet Union Atlantic Conference in August, 1941, Britain and America agreed on war aims in The Atlantic Charter: 1) national self-determination, 2) disarmament, 3) collective security, 4) future international organization. (Any of this look familiar?) Soviets endorsed the Atlantic Conference. European Theater 26

27 As war raged in Europe, Japan continued its Asian expansion. Japan seizes French bases in Indochina; U.S. cuts off trade in reaction Japan needs oil from U.S. or must take Dutch East Indies oil fields October 1941, General Hideki Tojo becomes prime minister Peace talks break down 27

28 28

29 Although negotiations were underway, Japan secretly plans the attack on the Hawaiian Islands December 7, 1941-Japanese attack Pearl Harbor 2,403 Americans killed; 1,178 wounded Over 300 aircraft, 21 ships destroyed or damaged December 8-FDR asks Congress for a declaration of war 29

30 30

31 Appendix D 31

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