1 Ch 13-4 Learning Goal/Content Statement Explain how the consequences of World War I and the worldwide depression set the stage for the rise of totalitarianism, aggressive Axis expansion and the policy of appeasement which in turn led to World War II.
2 13-4 vocabulary Benito Mussolini: Fascism: Totalitarianism Joseph Stalin: Gulag Adolf Hitler: Nazi Party:. Anti-Semitism: Nuremberg Laws: Kristallnacht:
3 13-4 vocabulary Benito Mussolini: Italian Fascist leader; he ruled as Italy s dictator for more than 20 years beginning in His alliance with Hitler brought Italy into WWII. Fascism: a totalitarian system of government that focuses on the good of the state rather than on the good of the individual citizen. HYPER NATIONALISM Totalitarianism: form of government in which the person or party in charge has absolute control over all aspects of life. Joseph Stalin: Totalitarian dictator of the Soviet Union; he led the Soviet Union through WWII and created a powerful Soviet sphere of influence in eastern Europe after the war. Gulag: a Soviet forced labor camp or prison, used especially for political dissidents.
4 13-4 vocabulary Adolf Hitler: Totalitarian dictator of Germany; his invasion of European countries led to WWII. He espoused notions of racial superiority and was responsible for the mass murder of millions of Jews and others in the Holocaust. Nazi Party: National Socialist Party; fascist political party of Adolf Hitler governed on totalitarian lines and advocating German racial superiority. Anti-Semitism: hostility or prejudice towards Jews. REVIEW DREYFUS AFFAIR. Nuremberg Laws: Nazi laws that eliminated citizenship and many civilian and property rights for Jews. Kristallnacht: night of broken glass ; an event that occurred on the nights of November 9 and 10 in which Hitler s Nazis encouraged Germans to riot against Jews; nearly 100 Jews died.
9 What happened Economically that leads to WWII? Treaty of Versailles cripples Germany. European economy in ruins after WWI. U.S. economy suffers because of Stock Market Crash and Great Depression.
11 Causes of Great Depression Uneven distribution of wealth Inflation Easy credit Over speculation in the stock market
15 Main Idea Dictators in Europe The political and social unrest that followed World War I helped totalitarian dictators rise to power in Europe. Content Statement/Learning Goal Explain how the consequences of World War I and the worldwide depression set the stage for the rise of totalitarianism, aggressive Axis expansion and the policy of appeasement which in turn led to World War II.
16 1) Mussolini s Italy After World War I, new ideas about government power promoted by Benito Mussolini led to drastic change in the Italian government. Fascist Ideology Mussolini wanted to build a great, glorious Italian empire Founded National Fascist Party, 1919 from Latin fasces, Roman symbol for unity, strength Fascism, authoritarian form of government Good of nation above all else NATIONALISM!! Mussolini in Power Fascists significant force in Italian politics, 1922 Mussolini wanted more, wanted to rule Italy Called March on Rome Show of force convinced Italy s king to put Mussolini at head of government Mussolini moved to establish dictatorship
17 1)Mussolini s Italy Mussolini not satisfied merely with political control Used threats, violence, political skill to outlaw all opposition Tried to influence Italians thoughts, feelings, behaviors Government attempt to control all aspects of life, totalitarianism Used propaganda to promote Italy s greatness Established festivals, holidays to remind Italians of proud Roman heritage
18 2)Invasion of Ethiopia Mussolini set out to make Italy strong military power Looked for easy target, settled on Ethiopia Ethiopia had two serious disadvantages, located between two Italian colonies, military ill-equipped; Italian forces crushed Ethiopia, 1935 League of Nations Ethiopian leader Haile Selassie appealed to League to take action against Italy s aggression No nation willing to get involved, to risk another world war League placed economic sanctions on Italy, took no real action
21 3)Communism under Stalin Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin died shortly after Communist Soviet Union formed, 1924 Joseph Stalin became new Soviet leader after struggle for power Different Approach 4)The Five-Year Plans Stalin s Soviet Union Karl Marx predicted state would wither away under communism Stalin took different approach, worked to return Soviet Union to totalitarian state, controlling all Soviet life Major part of Stalin s plan to strengthen communism, modernization of economy First Five-Year Plan began 1928, factories and mines had production goals
22 4)Stalin s Soviet Union 5-Year Plans reflected Soviet system of central planning Government makes major decisions about production of goods COMMAND ECONOMY Differs from capitalist economic system, where market forces are major influences on production Plans did lead to increases in Soviet industrial output During first two Five-Year Plans, oil production doubled, coal and steel production quadrupled Demands on Soviet workers were high
23 5)Collectivization and Famine Increase Farm Input Stalin believed millions of small, individually owned Soviet farms would be more productive if combined into larger, mechanized farms Combining small farms called collectivization Stalin tried to take land back given to peasants after Russian Revolution Peasant Reaction Peasants resisted, Stalin responded violently Executed thousands, sent more to Siberian system of labor camps, called the Gulag Resistance continued, particularly in the Ukraine Stalin refused to send food during 1932 famine; millions starved to death in Ukraine.
24 6)Political Purges Stalin s Soviet Union Stalin, absolute power, but feared people plotting against him Began campaign called Great Purge, to get rid of people, things undesirable During Great Purge, thousands executed, sent to the Gulag 7)Totalitarian Rule (This is what America fears) Stalin s regime dominated Soviet life Children encouraged to join youth organizations, taught attitudes, beliefs Religion discouraged, churches closed Cult of Personality- Ignorance is bliss. Portraits of Stalin decorated public places, creating heroic, idealized image Streets, towns renaming in Stalin s honor, created cult of personality By ruthlessly removing opposition, Stalin gained stranglehold over society
25 8) Post War Germany Germany underwent great changes after World War I. Like Mussolini and Stalin, Germany s Adolf Hitler rose to power during a time of conflict and political instability. 8)Postwar Germany Germany formed new republican government, Weimar Republic Extremely unpopular Germans blamed it for humiliating Versailles Treaty *RESENTMENT*!! 8)Economy Blamed Weimar Republic for economic problems. Inflation soared German mark virtually worthless Savings wiped out Depression brought more chaos **U.S. Great Depression couldn t lend Germany $$** 9)Hitler s Early Career Born Austria 1889 Served in German army World War I Soon joined Nazi Party Discovered he had knack for public speaking, leadership
26 German hyper-inflation
27 German Hyper inflation
28 German Hyper inflation Trying to sell food cheaply. LOOK AT THE PRICE ABOVE.
29 GERMANY S ECONOMIC WOES
30 GERMANY S ECONOMIC WOES
31 GERMANY S ECONOMIC WOES
32 9)Hitler s Early Career/ Hitler Gains Power Search for power Became key figure in Nazi party Wanted greater power Attempted overthrow of government, arrested, imprisoned, 1923 Mein Kampf Wrote book while in prison My Struggle described major political ideas Nationalism, racial superiority of German people, Aryans Hitler gains power Continued to try to gain power after released from prison Economic effects of Great Depression helped cause Promises Germans desperate for strong leader to improve lives Promised to rebuild military Talk of mighty German empire, master race, won supporters
34 10)Hitler Controls Germany Nazi Party Gains Strength Many Germans wanted to believe Hitler s words were true Nazis continued to gain strength in early 1930s Most popular of many German political parties; becomes 2 nd most popular party from 9 th most popular in Hitler appointed as chancellor, 1933 Most powerful post in German government Hitler Controls Germany Hitler s Programs Began to crush opposition Many opponents arrested, others intimidated by Nazi thugs Cult of personality built up glorifying Hitler as the Führer, leader Nazi youth organizations shaped minds of young Germans Began to rebuild German military Improved German economy Strict wage controls, massive government spending, reduced unemployment Much spending for rearmament Also new public buildings, roads
35 Nazi Rise to Power 1928
36 Nazi Rise to Power 1930
37 Nazi Rise to Power July 1932
38 Nazi Rise to Power November 1932 The Interwar Years
39 11) Nazi Anti-Semitism Nazis mounted more direct attacks on Jews November 9 and 10, 1938, anti-jewish riots across Germany, Austria Attack known as Kristallnacht, Night of Broken Glass Nearly 100 Jews killed Thousands of Jewish businesses, places of worship damaged, destroyed Greater horrors yet to come Hitler s Germany about to lead world into history s bloodiest war
40 11)Nazi Anti-Semitism A key component of the Nazi system was strong anti-semitic beliefs. Anti-Semitism is hostility toward or prejudice against Jews. Hitler blamed Jews for many of German s problems, including its defeat in World War I. Long History Anti-Semitism had long history in largely Christian Europe Nazi anti-semitism combined this with false beliefs that Jews were separate race Combined religious prejudice with hatred based on ancestry Laws Excluding Jews Many laws passed excluding Jews from mainstream German life 1935 Nuremberg Laws created separate legal status for Jews Eliminated citizenship, civil and property rights Right to work was limited Nuremberg Laws defined a person as Jewish based on ancestry of grandparents not religious beliefs.
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