Prelude to War. The Causes of World War II

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1 Prelude to War The Causes of World War II

2 The Treaty of Versailles Harsh, bitter treaty that ended WWI Germany must: Accept responsibility for WWI Pay war reparations to Allies Demilitarize the Rhineland & reduce military Give up territory to Poland & France Italy - nothing in victory

3 Benito Mussolini

4 Italy & Mussolini 1922: Mussolini becomes El Duce Establishes Fascist dictatorship Promotes industry & orderliness Encourages military aggressiveness Promote the greatness of the state Return to the grandeur of the Roman Empire 1935: Invades Ethiopia

5 Italy Invades Ethiopia 1935: Italy invades Ethiopia to gain revenge to defeat suffered in the 1880 s Haili Selassie, the Ethiopian leader, asks for help from the League of Nations League of Nations does nothing. Italy conquers Ethiopia

6 Joseph Stalin

7 The Soviet Union under Stalin wanted to create a model communist state began agricultural and industrial restructuring completely wiped out private enterprise purged anyone who disagreed with him (between 8 and 35 million deaths)

8 Emperor Hirohito & Hidecki Tojo

9 Japanese Aggression 1930 s: Depression Japan needs raw materials for industry Government dominated by War Lords 1931: Invades & conquers Manchuria 1937: Invades China 1940: Joins Axis Powers & invades SE Asia, cutting off natural rubber supply to U.S.

10 Adolph Hitler

11 Nazi Culture Totalitarian State Gestapo (Secret Police) established Concentration Camps for political prisoners Revived economy w/ public works projects Social Changes Youth Organizations Women rewarded for having babies - as long as they were Aryan Education changes & Book burnings Control of Religion

12 Campaign Against Jews Background of Anti-Semitism 1935: Nuremberg Laws prohibited: Mixed Marriages Attending or teaching at schools & universities Holding government positions Practicing law & medicine Publishing books Jews must wear armbands & have special passports 1938: Kristallnacht (Night of the Broken Glass)

13 Key Definitions Axis Powers: The alliance of Germany and Italy. In 1940, Japan joins them. Appeasement: The policy of giving in to someone s demands in order to keep the peace. Why would Britain and France adopt a policy of appeasement in the 1930 s?

14 The Rhineland & Austria Hitler built up German military in violation of the Treaty of Versailles 1936: Marched troops into the Rhineland Gambled that France & Britain wouldn t react Success here led to bolder moves 1938: Annexed Austria: Claimed he was just consolidating Germans France & Britain did nothing

15 The Spanish Civil War 1936: Civil War breaks out in Spain between Royalists & Fascists Francisco Franco = Fascist leader Becomes a testing ground for WWII Germany & Italy use it to test new military weapons & techniques

16 The Munich Conference Hitler wanted to annex German speaking Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia Conference in Munich attended by Hitler, Mussolini, French diplomat, & Neville Chamberlain, the British Prime Minister British & French gave in to Hitler s demands - gave up Sudetenland Chamberlain returned to London and proclaimed Peace in our times! Hitler soon took the rest of Czechoslovakia

17 Nazi Soviet Pact August 1939: Hitler and Stalin sign a nonaggression pact They agree not to attack each other. Hitler gets freedom to attack Poland Stalin gets Hitler s promise to split Poland Stalin also is free to take over Finland and Baltic States This shocks the western allies

18 Timeline of Hitler s Moves 33: Became Chancellor of Germany 36: Moved into the Rhineland Mar. 38: Annexed Austria Sept. 38: Sudetenland & Munich Conference Mar. 39: Seized Czechoslovakia Aug. 39: Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact Sept. 1, 1939: Germany invaded Poland

19 The Start of WWII Great Britain & France now promised to protect Poland Hitler created a fake invasion of Germany by Polish soldiers. ***September 1, 1939***: Germany invaded Poland England & France declare war!

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