4/1/2019. World War II. Causes of the war. What is ideology? What is propaganda?

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1 World War II Causes of the war What is ideology? What is propaganda? 1

2 A dictator is? What is a totalitarian government? What is a totalitarian dictator? 2

3 Post-WW1 Problems Treaty of Versailles Rebuilding war-ravaged countries Nations owed huge debt due to Borrowing money to pay for the war Reparations to be paid because of the war Europe in the 1920s lacked strong leadership Post-WW1 Recovery 1920 s shaky recovery Economies eventually return to peace time manufacturing and trade Veterans eventually gain jobs Growing middle class can buy new products US emerges as the leading economic power American banks and business controlled the global economy American financial institutions backed the recovery of Europe Recovery US GB/France Germany 3

4 And Collapse US GB/France Germany Post-WW1 Economic Problems Dictators took advantage of economic problems by: Promising simple solutions to the nation s problems Rebuilding national pride usually through intense propaganda Providing scapegoats for the problem blame someone else Absorbing power by taking away individual rights and crushing any opposition 1 party, 1 rule Underlying Causes to WW II 1. Nationalism Extreme pride in one s nationality or country 2. Imperialism Taking of land/property 3. Militarism Building weapons or a strong military This is the same thing that happened in WW1! 4

5 Underlying 4. Fascism: A political philosophy, movement, or regime that exalts nation (and often race) above the individual Stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader Severe economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition 5. Totalitarian Dictatorships The Dictators Adolf Hitler 5

6 Fascist Germany Adolf Hitler Der Fuhrer Germany National Socialist (Nazi) Party is the German version of Fascism Nazi Ideology State over individuals and human rights. Control all aspects of German society. Redistribute wealth, welfare state, nationalism & pride through propaganda. Sought ownership of key industries: banks, schools, healthcare system, segments of the church. Nationalism Wanted to rebuild Germany The Four Hates Democracies (a weak & undisciplined form of gov t) Communism (a threat to Nazi growth) November Criminals who signed the WWI Armistice Jews (the source of all evil & problems in Germany) Imperialism A desire to unite all people of German ancestry (Blood & language) Lebensraum (a desire for more living space) needed to build his empire he called The Third Reich Militarism Defied the Treaty of Versailles & rebuilt the army Created the Nazi War Machine Built #1 military in the world 6

7 Post-WW1 Germany Germany s economy was in critical shape after the war, severe depression, hyperinflation and high unemployment. German money is worthless. Money was burnt because it was cheaper than wood or coal Post-WW1 Germany Many upset over the terms of the Versailles Treaty War Guilt made Germany accept sole responsibility for the war. Reparations equal to the damages caused by the war to all civilian property. Army limited to only 100,000 Army not allowed to have heavy artillery or machines German Navy limited to 6 cruisers Loss of Alsace-Lorraine and land to Poland All German colonies divided by England, France and Japan New government: The Weimar Republic Rise of Adolf Hitler Nazi Party wins in the elections of 1933 and Hitler appointed Chancellor (Prime Minister). Reichstag Fire blamed on the Communists. Passes the Enabling Act which leads directly to the demise of the Weimar Republic into the Third Reich. Third Reich is a single party dictatorship based on totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism From Hitler gets the German economy going, denounces the restrictions placed on it in the Versailles Treaty and starts annexing lands that are home to millions of ethnic German 7

8 Benito Mussolini Fascist Italy Benito Mussolini Il Duce Kingdom of Italy Fascist Fascist Ideology State over individual. Uses power to control property owners. Strong Military Citizens are expected to support the government. Everything serves the government: businesses, schools, the media. Nationalism Wished to rebuild the ancient Holy Roman Empire Imperialism Felt betrayed by the Allies at the Treaty of Versailles Conference due to a promise of land for joining the Allies that was not kept Wanted to control lands around the Mediterranean Sea Mare Nostrum = Our Sea Conquers Ethiopia to prove Italy s strength and tries to control the Horn of Africa 8

9 Militarism Formed the Rome-Berlin Axis (alliance) with Germany in 1936 Joseph Stalin Communist USSR Joseph Stalin Soviet Union Communist Communist Ideology Workers unite to overthrow capitalism. Governments not necessary, people share resources to survive. Welfare of state over individuals. State owns nearly all property; limited personal freedoms. 9

10 Nationalism Socialism in one country. Russia is one nation and the motherland to all Slavic people. Russian is the national language and regional dialects not used in the government. Imperialism Wants to regain lost Baltic Republics, Ukrainian and Belarusian territory. Militarism Heavy industrialization especially in military hardware. Builds the second most powerful military in the world. Stalin comes to power Stalin comes to power in 1924 and has Trotsky exiled Stalin has Trotsky assassinated in Mexico in 1949 Used violence, fear and intimidation to control the people. Stalin purges 7 million political opponents throughout his dictatorship Trotsky with Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera One of Stalin s labor camps in Siberia for opponents to his regime. 10

11 Agricultural Collectives Stalin creates large state collective farms Resistance meant harsh punishment Labor camps Starvation Estimates are between six and eight million Ukrainians alone were starved to death. General Hideki Tojo & Emperor Hirohito Fascist Japan General Hideki Tojo Military leader and Prime Minister Emperor Hirohito Political and Spiritual figurehead Ideology Country and Emperor above all else Emperor is semi-divine Bushido No surrender Avoid fate of China Become the greatest power in Asia Engage in imperialism like the Western nations 11

12 Nationalism Japan wanted to be #1 in Asia Goal: Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere: name for power in Asia Imperialism To be #1 in Asia Wanted China s lands (and others) to obtain oil and raw materials Invades Manchuria in 1931 No country comes to China s aid Militarism Built up the strongest military regime in Asia Soldier s motto: Death before Dishonor Poor Decisions were made by the powerful democracies France & Great Britain adopted a policy of appeasement France builds Maginot Line The League of Nations would prove ineffective lacked a military U.S. Isolationism & Depression kept our focus on U.S. concerns once aggression began, we claimed to be neutral 12

13 Equation: Nationalism + Imperialism + Militarism = Aggression Extreme Aggression = War! Francisco Franco Fascist Spain Generalissimo Francisco Franco Head of State and Government Flange Party combination of fascist and monarchist parties Ideology State over individual National Catholicism Suppress all opposition Wants to regain lost Spanish colonies Anti-communism and liberalism Suppress regionalism 13

14 Guernica, 1938 Nationalism Suppress cultural diversity esp. Basque and Catalonia Spanish national language and regional dialects outlawed (Castilian) National Catholic religion Imperialism Wants to regain lost Spanish colonies Wants to control Gibraltar and North Africa to control entrance to the Mediterranean Sea Militarism Only within Spain. But Franco rules by military and intimidation. 14

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